Hanouka

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Jérusalem, Paris, Beyrouth… le mal se déchaîne et frappe quotidiennement. Et si l’antidote se cachait dans l’allumage des bougies de Hanouka ?

Hanoucca ou Hanouka, c’est la fête des lumières, elle commence le 25e du mois juif de Kislev, et dure huit jours. Cette année, nous célébrons Hanouka du dimanche 22 décembre le soir au lundi 30 décembre 2019. 

Que savez-vous sur l’histoire de Hanouka ?

Le mot hébreu Hanouka  signifie « inauguration ». Au 2ème siècle avant l’ère chrétienne, au temps du Second Temple, le régime gréco-syrien d’Antioche a cherché à éloigner les Juifs de leur judaïsme, dans l’espoir de les assimiler à la culture grecque. Antioche avait interdit l’observance des lois juives – y compris la circoncision, le Shabbat et l’étude de la Torah – sous peine de mort. De même, beaucoup de Juifs – dits ‘’hellénisants’’ – ont commencé à s’assimiler dans la culture grecque, prenant des noms grecs et épousant des non-juifs. Ce qui commença à saper les fondements et les pratiques de la vie juive.

Lorsque les Grecs mirent les Juifs au défi de sacrifier un porc à  un dieu grec, quelques juifs courageux s’enfuirent dans les collines de Judée, en signe de révolte ouverte contre cette menace portée à la vie juive. Dirigée par Matitiyahou, et plus tard, son fils Judas Macchabée, ce petit groupe de juifs pieux mena une guérilla contre l’armée gréco-syrienne.  Antioche envoya des milliers de troupes armées pour écraser la rébellion, mais au bout de trois ans et contre tout espoir, les Macchabées réussirent miraculeusement à chasser les étrangers de leurs terres. La victoire à l’échelle d’Israël revenait à vaincre en combiné les superpuissances d’aujourd’hui. 

Les combattants juifs entrèrent à Jérusalem et trouvèrent  le Saint Temple en ruines, et profané avec des idoles. Les Maccabées purifièrent le Temple et le consacrèrent à nouveau, le 25 Kislev. Quand fut venu le temps de rallumer la Ménorah, ils fouillèrent le Temple de fond en comble, mais ne trouvèrent qu’une fiole d’huile pure portant le sceau du Grand Prêtre. Un groupe de croyants alluma malgré tout la Ménorah et fut récompensé par un miracle : cette petite fiole d’huile brûla pendant huit jours, jusqu’à un nouvel arrivage d’huile.  

Depuis, les Juifs observent une fête huit jours durant, en l’honneur de cette victoire historique et du miracle de l’huile.

Et vous qui pensiez connaître l’histoire de Hanouka sur le bout des doigts…

Lisez donc cette petite mise au point historique. Et détrompez-vous !

A priori, tout le monde connaît l’histoire de Hanouka : la victoire des faibles contre les forts, l’inauguration du Temple souillé par les Grecs, le miracle de la fiole d’huile… Mais qu’en est-il du contexte historique de Hanouka ? Pourquoi Antiochus Épiphane était-il si déterminé à briser le peuple juif ? Quel processus historico-culturel a abouti à l’émergence des Juifs hellénistes ? L’inauguration du Temple a-t-elle signifié la fin des combats ?

Un peu d’histoire…

L’Histoire est comme un écheveau qu’il faut démêler pour comprendre l’origine de certains évènements. Dans certains cas, il suffit de remonter quelques mois en arrière, dans d’autres, ce sont plusieurs siècles qu’il faut traverser pour clarifier le contexte historique de l’évènement. C’est le cas de Hanouka.

Pour comprendre ce qui s’est passé le 25 Kislev de l’an -164 avant l’ère vulgaire, il nous faut remonter plusieurs siècles auparavant, en – 515, avec le retour d’une petite partie des exilés juifs de Babylone et la construction du Second Temple dans sa version « minimaliste ». À partir de cette période et pendant près de deux siècles, l’autonomie juive restaurée en Terre d’Israël jouit de tous ses droits religieux. La conquête de la Perse par Alexandre le Grand marque une nouvelle ère dans les relations entre le peuple juif et son occupant et Alexandre accorde aux Juifs une entière liberté de culte.

Mais l’idylle entre les Grecs et le peuple juif se termine avec la mort d’Alexandre le Grand et le partage de son territoire entre trois de ses généraux. Antigone se voit confier la Grèce, Ptolémée reçoit l’Égypte et Séleucos va obtenir la Syrie et la Terre d’Israël.

Les débuts de la dynastie des Séleucides sont favorables aux Juifs qui continuent de jouir de leurs droits au sein de leur autonomie partielle. Antiochus III accorde même des dons substantiels au Temple. Mais très vite, l’énorme décalage entre la culture grecque et la culture juive entraîne des conflits de plus en plus fréquents et de plus en plus sanglants.

Les Grecs ont du mal à accepter que ce petit peuple ne s’intègre pas totalement à leur civilisation et n’adopte pas ses coutumes.

Antiochus IV, un tyran dément au pouvoir

Lorsque Antiochus IV Épiphane – Antiochus l’éclairé – ou Antiochus Épimane – Antiochus le dément, comme l’appelaient ses serviteurs – accède au pouvoir, il est pris d’une obsession quasiment maladive : celle de faire régner la culture grecque sur toutes ses provinces. Et ce sont tout particulièrement les Juifs qui sont visés. Humilié suite à une défaite diplomatique face à l’Empire romain, Antiochus, sur le chemin du retour vers la Syrie, passe par la Judée et Jérusalem. C’est contre la population autochtone qu’il va laisser libre cours à sa colère et à sa frustration.

Il engage des mercenaires auxquels il confie une mission : celle d’imposer son diktat aux Juifs et de leur interdire de respecter le Chabbat et la néoménie, et de procéder aux circoncisions. Les villages sont brûlés, leurs habitants passés au fil de l’épée, les morts se comptent par milliers.

À Jérusalem, le 15 Kislev de l’année -167, l’armée grecque pénètre dans le Temple. Antiochus s’empare de tous les ustensiles du Temple. Le 25 du même mois, un sacrifice étranger est offert sur l’autel.

L’attrait brûlant pour la culture grecque

Cependant, la culture grecque et helléniste attire de plus en plus de Juifs qui adoptent ses coutumes, s’habillent comme des Grecs, changent de patronymes, abandonnent peu à peu la Torah.

Au sein de la prêtrise, la corruption et l’hellénisme font rage. Certains grands prêtres, qui faisaient office d’ambassadeurs et de précepteurs du roi, deviennent de plus en plus débauchés et dépravés. Ils forment peu à peu le noyau dur des Mityavnim, les hellénisés, avec l’aide de deux sectes, les Sadducéens et les Boéthusiens.

Un de ces hellénistes, Jason, achète la grande prêtrise et fait construire un gymnase tout près du Temple, ainsi qu’une académie où sont enseignées les matières profanes. Au lieu de servir Dieu, les Cohanim préfèrent aller voir les combats grecs.

La révolte des Maccabées

C’est à cette époque qu’a lieu un épisode qui nous est relaté dans le livre des Maccabim : un village entier est décimé après avoir refusé de se battre contre les soldats grecs durant le jour du Chabbat. Lorsque Matitiyahou, le Cohen Gadol qui habite le village de Modiin, apprend la nouvelle, il décide que cette stratégie est une véritable menace pour la pérennité du peuple juif : « Si tout le peuple décide d’agir de la même manière que nos frères et refuse de livrer bataille contre les Goyim pour préserver nos lois et nos vies, nous allons disparaître de la surface de la terre ». Matitiyahou et sa famille décident alors de se battre.

Cette décision sera la première étincelle de la révolte. Quelques jours plus tard, lorsque des soldats grecs, accompagnés par des Hellénistes, se rendent à Modiin et exigent de Matitiyahou qu’il fasse un sacrifice aux dieux grecs, Matitiyahou refuse. Un Helléniste prend les devants et Matitiyahou sort une dague qu’il avait dissimulée sous sa robe et le tue. Il lance son cri de guerre :  » Mi Lachem Elaï, que ceux qui sont avec Hachem soient avec moi ! » Et les habitants juifs passent les soldats grecs au fil de l’épée.

Une victoire miraculeuse

À ses débuts, la révolte vise uniquement à rendre aux Juifs leurs droits religieux et la liberté de culte. Les Hasmonéens ne pensent même pas qu’ils sont capables de vaincre la puissante armée grecque et encore moins de redonner son indépendance politique au peuple juif.

Mais les miracles se suivent et, bataille après bataille, les insurgés parviennent à repousser l’ennemi, d’abord sous la houlette de Matitiyahou, puis de son fils, Yéhouda Hamaccabi.

L’armée de Yéhouda Hamaccabi compte 3 000 hommes. Conscient qu’il ne réussira pas à vaincre les grecs par des méthodes  » classiques  », Yéhouda entame une politique de guérilla. Il prend l’ennemi par surprise et réussit à le vaincre.

Et c’est ainsi qu’en -164, l’armée de Yéhouda Hamaccabi parvient à reconquérir Jérusalem.

C’est là qu’a lieu le miracle de la fiole d’huile et que le Beth-Hamikdach est purifié. Le 25 Kislev, trois ans, jour pour jour, après qu’un animal impur a été sacrifié dans l’enceinte du Temple et des siècles après l’achèvement des travaux du Tabernacle dans le désert au temps de Moché Rabénou, le Beth-Hamikdach est inauguré et la royauté revient en Israël, sous l’égide de la famille des Hasmonéens.

Mais les combats ne s’arrêtent pas là. Au contraire. Durant 27 ans, la guerre fait rage et ce n’est qu’en -140 que les Grecs sont intégralement repoussés d’Eretz Israël. Shimon, le dernier fils de Matitiyahou, est nommé roi de Judée. La dynastie des Hasmonéens règnera sur Israël durant plus de 200 ans.

C’est ainsi que se termine l’histoire de Hanouka, l’histoire d’un miracle, celui de la victoire, mais aussi celui de la royauté reconquise. 

« Un peu de lumière repousse beaucoup d’obscurité »

Dans moins d’une semaine, les Juifs du monde entier se regrouperont autour d’une petite bougie, marquant ainsi le début de Hanouka. Huit jours durant, nous ajouterons chaque soir une bougie afin de célébrer la victoire des Maccabim contre l’ennemi grec. Une bougie le premier soir, deux le deuxième, trois le troisième, etc. Cela semble parfaitement logique ; il s’en est pourtant fallu de peu que nous ne fassions l’inverse ! La Guemara1 rapporte en effet qu’une des nombreuses discussions opposant l’école de Hillel et celle de Shamaï avait précisément pour objet l’ordre dans lequel les bougies de Hanouka doivent être allumées : ordre croissant pour Hillel, décroissant pour Shamaï.

Hillet et Shamaï : deux écoles de pensée

Les deux Sages considèrent l’allumage des bougies comme le symbole de la guerre que nous devons mener contre le mal. Là où il y a divergence, c’est sur la manière dont nous devons mener ce combat. Pour Hillel, il importe d’ajouter de la lumière – par l’étude de la Torah, par des bonnes actions, par le renforcement général du camp du bien. Dans cette optique, il suffit de commencer avec une petite bougie puis d’en ajouter une chaque soir afin de repousser le mal (stratégie qui sera plus tard reprise par Rabbi Shneur Zalman de Lyadi, fondateur de la hassidout Habad et auteur de l’adage : « Un peu de lumière repousse beaucoup d’obscurité »). Pour Shamaï, au contraire, c’est le feu qui est l’élément principal, pour sa fonction purificatrice et sa capacité à vaincre l’adversaire ; vu sous cet angle, il importe donc de partir au combat avec le maximum de munitions (huit bougies dès le premier soir), puis de baisser l’intensité du feu au fur et à mesure que l’ennemi recule.

La loi ayant été fixée d’après l’avis de Hillel, il semblerait donc que la seule manière dont nous puissions combattre le mal soit de façon indirecte, en ajoutant constamment de la lumière. Nous avons cependant vu que, dans l’absolu, l’avis de Shamaï est tout aussi légitime ; or, il existe une opinion selon laquelle, aux temps messianiques, c’est celui-ci, et non plus celui de Hillel, qui sera suivi pour fixer la loi4. Si cette opinion est correcte, cela impliquera de très nombreux changements dans des domaines extrêmement variés de la halacha. Et cela pourrait également signifier qu’à l’époque messianique, il ne suffira plus d’ajouter de la lumière pour faire reculer le mal, mais qu’il faudra alors l’affronter directement, dans un combat sans merci

CÔTÉ LOIS

Hanouka est l’une des fêtes les plus chéries et célébrées du calendrier juif. Les descriptions impressionnantes des miracles de la victoire juive sur les Grecs au 2ème siècle avant J. -C et le miracle de l’huile qui dura huit jours au lieu d’un lors de la ré-inauguration du Temple, sont une source d’inspiration intemporelle. Comme chaque fête, Hanouka possède ses lois et coutumes.

La Mitsva du partage

Si une personne possède tout juste assez d’huile et de mèches pour lui-même pour illuminer les 8 jours de Hanouka et que son voisin pauvre n’en a pas du tout, il devra partager avec lui, même s’il ne lui restera plus assez d’huile pour les 8 bougies du dernier jour. 

Et pour cause, l’habitude voulant qu’on rajoute chaque jour une bougie jusqu’à en allumer 8 le dernier jour est en fait un Hiddour, un embellissement de la Mitsva. La Mitsva stricto sensu consiste à allumer une bougie par soir et par ménage. Moralité ? Il est préférable de permettre à un autre Juif d’accomplir la Mitsva, plutôt que d’embellir notre propre Mitsva.

Renouer avec ses traditions

À l’origine, on devait allumer les bougies à l’extérieur de la maison, devant la porte ou dans la cour, au coucher du soleil, afin que les gens revenant de leur travail voient les bougies de la fête. Hanouka est unique en son genre. C’est le seul commandement du judaïsme qui exige une telle publicité.

À l’époque des Hasmonéens, le peuple juif faisait les frais d’une assimilation galopante sous l’influence de la culture grecque. Nos Sages ont institué le devoir d’allumer les bougies à l’extérieur pour répandre les miracles que Dieu avait faits pour Son peuple. Ce n’était pas juste une célébration destinée aux prêtres Hasmonéens à l’intérieur du Temple, mais une manière d’inciter tous les juifs à renouer avec leurs traditions.

Une bénédiction unique en son genre

La plupart d’entre nous connaissons la bénédiction à réciter lors de l’allumage des bougies. Ce que nous connaissons moins, c’est la bénédiction destinée à celui qui n’allume pas les bougies. Lorsqu’une personne voit des bougies de Hanouka, même allumées par une autre personne, elle récitera la bénédiction « Sur les miracles que tu as faits à nos ancêtres ». Le fait de réciter une bénédiction alors qu’on n’accomplit effectivement aucune Mitsva (et que personne ne le fait pour nous), est aussi une spécificité de Hanouka. Elle résulte de la sollicitude de nos Maîtres pour l’ensemble du peuple juif, y compris ceux qui n’accomplissent pas les Mitsvot. Les bougies sont exposées à la vue de tous. 

Lorsque la vue des bougies éveille chez le Juif un regain d’intérêt nouveau pour son identité juive, c’est là l’accomplissement d’une dimension particulière de la Mitsva qui donne lieu à une louange sous forme de bénédiction. (Souccat David)

Le sens des priorités

Le Talmud soulève le cas d’un homme qui a tout juste assez d’huile pour allumer soit les bougies de Hanouka soit celles de Chabbat, mais pas les deux. Que faut-il faire dans un tel cas ? Quelle Mitsva est prioritaire ?

Le Talmud tranche que le Chabbat l’emporte car les bougies sont destinées à favoriser l’harmonie familiale.

Les bougies de Hanouka témoignent du miracle de la fiole d’huile et sont placées à l’extérieur de la maison, alors que celles de Chabbat sont destinées à éclairer l’intérieur de la maison. Nos Sages ont donné la préséance à la lumière éclairant le foyer afin d’y faire régner une ambiance agréable et pour que les membres de la famille puissent profiter des repas du Chabbat.

On raconte sur le Hafets Haim, l’un des chefs spirituels du Judaïsme européen avant la seconde guerre mondiale, l’histoire suivante :

L’heure de l’allumage des bougies était arrivée. Un invité se trouvait dans la maison du Rav et attendait avec impatience de vivre ce grand moment aux côtés du Grand Maître. L’heure passait et le Hafets Haïm ne se levait toujours pas pour allumer les bougies et ce, au grand étonnement de l’invité qui savait que le Rav était réputé pour son respect scrupuleux des Mitsvot. Finalement, bien après que l’heure propice à l’allumage fut passée (a posteriori, on peut allumer durant toute la nuit), la porte de la maison s’ouvrit et l’épouse du Hafets Haim entra. Sans un mot, le Rav se leva et procéda à l’allumage des bougies. Le Hafets Haim, conscient de l’étonnement suscité par son comportement, expliqua qu’il avait retardé l’allumage pour que sa femme puisse y assister. Il savait la satisfaction que lui procurait sa participation à l’allumage. Si elle l’avait manqué, elle aurait été très déçue.

L’allumage des bougies de Hanouka est une Mitsva très importante et il faut l’accomplir avec empressement, en faisant attention à chaque détail. Mais, puisque nos Sages nous enseignent que l’harmonie familiale a préséance sur Hanouka, le Hafets Haim a décidé qu’il était juste de repousser l’allumage, par égard pour les sentiments de son épouse.

Le devoir d’agir, non pas de réussir

La bougie doit contenir suffisamment d’huile (ou de cire) au moment de l’allumage pour qu’elle brûle trente minutes après la sortie des étoiles. Si la bougie s’éteint avant, on peut la rallumer sans bénédiction, mais on n’est pas obligé de le faire, car la Mitsva a été accomplie par le fait même de l’allumage.

Cette loi fait écho à la conception juive du monde, qui veut que notre devoir dans ce monde soit de prendre les bonnes décisions et de faire en sorte de les concrétiser ; mais que si, finalement, nos rêves de succès sont anéantis, cela ne signifie pas pour autant que nous avons échoué. En fin de compte, une fois qu’on a fait tous les efforts nécessaires, le succès ou l’échec sont entre les mains de Dieu.

L’ambition juive

À Hanouka, nous ajoutons chaque soir une nouvelle bougie jusqu’au huitième et dernier soir durant lequel nous allumons huit bougies.

Cette loi vient souligner le caractère croissant du miracle, à savoir que la quantité d’huile suffisante pour un jour suffit pour huit jours. Mais elle symbolise également l’ambition juive, le devoir d’essayer sans cesse d’atteindre une meilleure appréciation des miracles divins et un niveau spirituel plus élevé.

Petit et grand

À Hanouka, on retrouve les notions de « Hallel » et « Hodaah ». Le Hallel est le chant par lequel on loue Dieu pour les miracles qu’il a accomplis pour le peuple juif. La Hodaah est une reconnaissance du fait que nous ne méritons pas les merveilles qu’Il fait pour nous.

Un juif doit évoluer dans la vie avec cette double reconnaissance de la magnificence de Dieu d’une part, et de la petitesse de Ses créatures de l’autre. (Sfat Emet)

Le feu de l’âme

Certaines catégories de mèches et d’huiles qui ne conviennent pas pour l’allumage des bougies de Chabbat conviennent toutefois à l’allumage de celles de Hanouka. Chaque lettre du mot Nefech (âme en Hébreu) renvoie à l’une des composantes de la bougie : Ner (flamme), Ptila (mèche) et Chemen (huile). Les âmes juives qui ont du mal à s’illuminer  – qui  ne sont pas en phase avec leur identité juive – peuvent, grâce au pouvoir spécial des bougies, briller avec éclat à Hanouka . Parce qu’à Hanouka, plus qu’à tout autre moment de l’année, chacun a la possibilité de renouer avec son âme juive. (Sfat Emet)

Instructions pour l’allumage 

Dans la tradition ashkénaze, chaque personne allume sa propre Ménorah. Dans la tradition séfarade, on utilise une Ménorah par famille.

Quelle Ménorah allumer ? 

Pour faire savoir quel soir de Hanoucca on est, les huit bougies de la Ménorah doivent être placées à la même hauteur – et de préférence en ligne droite. Sans quoi les bougies ne peuvent pas être facilement discernées et pourraient ressembler à une torche. 

En plus des huit lumières principales, la Ménorah possède une bougie auxiliaire appelée le « Shamash ». Comme il nous est interdit d’utiliser les lumières de Hanoucca pour tout autre but que de « les regarder », on considère tout autre chose dont on profite comme venant du Shamash. 

Puisque le Shamash ne compte pas comme l’une des huit lumières, votre Ménorah doit avoir un Shamash qui se démarque d’une certaine façon – soit en étant placé plus haut que les autres bougies, soit sur le côté. 

Quelles bougies allumer ?

Le plus important est que vos bougies brûlent pendant au moins 30 minutes après la tombée du jour (les bougies de couleur ont du mal à y parvenir !) ; beaucoup de librairies juives vendent des bougies de couleur plus longues. 

En fait, il est même préférable d’utiliser de l’huile d’olive, car le miracle des Maccabées s’est produit avec de l’huile d’olive. Des récipients en verre contenant de l’huile peuvent être placés dans les bougeoirs de toute Ménorah normale. Beaucoup de librairies juives vendent même des kits de récipients pré-remplis jetables. 

Où  allumer ? 

Pour mieux faire connaître le miracle, la Ménorah doit être allumée idéalement derrière la porte de votre maison, sur le côté gauche, en entrant (la mezouza est sur le côté droit ; de cette manière, vous êtes « entouré de Mitsvot »). En Israël, beaucoup de gens allument leurs bougiés dehors dans des boîtes en verre spécial fabriquées pour la Ménorah

Si ce n’est pas pratique, la Ménorah peut être allumée dans le cadre d’une fenêtre donnant sur la voie publique.

Quelqu’un qui vit à un étage élevé doit allumer à la fenêtre. Si, pour quelque raison que ce soit, la Ménorah ne peut être allumée à la fenêtre, elle pourra l’être à l’intérieur de la maison, sur une table, ce qui accomplit au moins la Mitsva de « faire connaître le miracle » pour les membres du foyer.  Comme la Mitsva consiste dans l’allumage lui-même, celui qui déplace la Ménorah à un endroit plus approprié après l’allumage n’a pas accompli la Mitsva

Quand allumer ? 

La Ménorah doit de préférence être allumée dès la nuit tombée. Il est préférable d’attendre, cependant, que tous les membres de la famille soient présents. Cela rajoute à l’ambiance familiale et maximise également la Mitsva de « faire connaître le miracle ». La Ménorah peut encore être allumée (avec la bénédiction) tard dans la nuit, tant que les membres de la famille sont encore éveillés. 

La Ménorah doit rester allumée pendant au moins 30 minutes après la tombée du jour, période durant laquelle aucune utilisation ne doit être faite de sa lumière.

Le vendredi après-midi, la Ménorah doit être allumée 18 minutes avant le coucher du soleil. Et puisque la Ménorah  a besoin de brûler pendant 30 minutes dans la nuit, les bougies utilisées le vendredi auront besoin d’être plus grandes que les ordinaires « bougies de couleur » (qui généralement ne brûlent pas plus d’une demi-heure).  

Comment allumer ?

Le premier soir, on place une bougie à l’extrême droite de la Ménorah. Cette mesure s’applique, que la Ménorah soit placée à côté d’une porte ou d’une fenêtre. 

Une autre bougie est placée pour faire office de Shamash (bougie auxiliaire plus grande) et sera utilisée pour allumer les autres. Le Shamash ne compte pas comme l’une des bougies. 

D’abord, il faut allumer le Shamash, puis réciter les bénédictions, et ensuite utiliser le Shamash pour allumer la bougie de Hanoucca.  Le deuxième soir, on place deux bougies dans les deux positions d’extrême-droite – et on utilise le Shamash pour allumer la première à gauche.  Le troisième soir, on place trois bougies dans les trois positions d’extrême-droite – et on utilise le Shamash pour les allumer dans l’ordre, de gauche à droite.  Suivez cette procédure chaque soir de Hanoukka… jusqu’à ce que toutes les lumières rayonnent joyeusement !

Les Bénédictions   

Les deux premières bénédictions sont dites avec le Shamash déjà allumé, mais immédiatement avant d’allumer les bougies de Hanoucca.

Bénédiction # 1     Barukh ata Ado-nai Elo-henou Mélekh ha-olam, Asher kide-Shanu be-mitzvo-tav, Ve-tzi-Vanou le-adlik ner Hanoucca.  

Béni sois-Tu, Seigneur notre Dieu, Roi de l’univers, Qui nous a sanctifiés par Ses commandements et nous a ordonné d’allumer la lumière de ‘Hanoucca. 

Bénédiction # 2     Barukh ata Ado-nai Elo-henou Mélekh ha-olam,  She -assa nissim le avo-la-teinou, Baya-mim hahem baz-man ha-Zé.

Béni sois-Tu, Seigneur notre Dieu, Roi de l’univers, Qui fait des miracles pour nos ancêtres, en ces jours, en cette saison. 

Bénédiction # 3 

Cette bénédiction est dite la première nuit seulement.     Barukh ata Ado-nai Elo-henou Mélekh ha-olam,  She -hehiyanou vekiyyémanou Ve Higuiyanou laz-man ha-Zé.   

Béni sois-Tu, Seigneur notre Dieu, Roi de l’univers, qui nous a gardés en vie, soutenus et nous a amenés à cette saison.

Le paragraphe suivant est dit chaque soir, après l’allumage de la première bougie :     Hanerote alalou anou madlikin al hanissim veal apourkan veal haguevourot veal hatechouot veal haniflaot veal ane’hamot che-assita la-avotenou bayamim haem ba-zmane aze.  

Al yede coanekha akedochim vekhol chemonat’ yeme ‘hanoukka hanerot alalou kodech hem ve-ein lanou rechout lehichtamech baem ella lireotam bilvad kedei lehodot lichmekha al nisseikha ve-al yechouoteikha veal nifleotekha. 

Ces bougies, nous les allumons pour les miracles, le sauvetage et les exploits, les délivrances, les prodiges et les consolations que tu as faites à nos ancêtres, à leur époque et de nos jours, par l’intermédiaire de tes saints prêtres. Et pendant les huit jours de Hanoucca, ces bougies sont sacrées et nous n’avons pas le droit de nous en servir, mais uniquement de les regarder afin de rendre hommage à Ton Nom pour Tes miracles, Tes prodiges et Tes délivrances.  

Autres coutumes 

Après l’allumage de la Ménorah  Hanoucca, les familles apprécient de s’assoir dans sa lueur, en chantant et en se rappelant les miracles d’hier et d’aujourd’hui. La première chanson traditionnellement chantée après l’allumage des bougies est Maoz Tsour.  

Un certain nombre d’autres coutumes sont apparues, notamment : 

  • manger des aliments cuits à l’huile, comme les pommes de terre frites, des latkes (galettes) et des soufganiyot (des beignets à la confiture), en commémoration du miracle de l’huile.
    • donner des Dmei Hanoucca (pièces) aux enfants.  
    • faire tourner une toupie à quatre côtés comportant une lettre hébraïque sur chaque côté (sévivone en hébreu).

Quelle est l’origine de la toupie ?   

Au temps des persécutions, quand l’étude de la Torah était interdite, l’enseignement des enfants juifs continuait malgré tout. Lorsque les soldats venaient enquêter, les enfants sortaient une toupie et faisaient semblant de jouer. 

Les lettres inscrites sur la toupie sont Noun, Gimmel, Hé, Shin – les premières lettres de Ness Gadol Haya Cham – « Un grand miracle s’est produit là » (en Israël, la dernière lettre est un Pey – « Po – Ici »).  

Une façon de jouer à  la toupie est de voir qui peut la garder debout le plus longtemps. Ou qui peut en faire tourner le plus grand nombre simultanément.

Une autre version du jeu de la toupie implique des joueurs utilisant des pièces, des noix, des raisins secs, ou des pièces de chocolat comme jetons. 

Chaque joueur met une somme égale dans le « pot ». Le premier joueur fait tourner la toupie. Lorsque la toupie s’arrête, la lettre vers le haut détermine : 

  • Noun – rien ne se passe, le joueur suivant fait tourner la toupie  
    • Guimel – le joueur prend le pot  
    • Hé – le joueur prend la moitié du pot  
    • Shin – le joueur rajoute une somme dans le pot 

À Hanoukka, nous ajoutons aux prières le paragraphe « Al Ha’nissim » – qui décrit le miracle de Hanoucca. 

La face cachée de la toupie

Plus qu’un simple divertissement, la toupie de Hanouka nous invite à une réflexion profonde sur le sens et l’essence des miracles.

Comme chacune des célébrations juives, Hanouka possède son lot d’us et coutumes qui en font l’une des fêtes les plus chéries du calendrier hébraïque. Certains d’entre eux sont facilement compréhensibles, notamment l’usage de consommer des latkes et autres beignets frits, pour commémorer le miracle de la fiole d’huile qui brûla pendant huit jours.

En revanche, la coutume bien répandue de jouer à la toupie n’est pas aussi évidente.

Selon certains commentateurs, ce jeu remonte à l’époque des décrets gréco-syriens édictés contre le peuple juif avec, entre autres, l’interdiction d’étudier les textes sacrés juifs. Courageusement, les Juifs continuèrent à enseigner et étudier la Torah en secret. Dès qu’un soldat grec faisait son apparition, ils cachaient leurs livres, sortaient des toupies et jouaient avec les enfants.

Mais au-delà de ce fondement historique, la toupie incarne également l’essence spirituelle profonde de la fête de Hanouka.

Au cours de la période du Second Temple, un petit groupe de Juifs lutta vaillamment contre les armées grecques, les vainquit miraculeusement et reconquit la liberté religieuse. Bien que la guerre ne prît fin que plusieurs années plus tard, dès le 25 Kislev, les Juifs purent allumer à nouveau la Ménorah dans le Temple. Toutes les fioles d’huile avaient été souillées par les Grecs, mais par miracle, une petite fiole scellée fut trouvée, contenant suffisamment d’huile pour brûler un soir. Un autre miracle se produisit et l’huile brûla pendant huit jours, jusqu’à ce les Juifs puissent se procurer une nouvelle huile.

Le terme Hanouka est une contraction des termes Hanou kaf-hé : « ils campèrent [et se reposèrent de la guerre] le 25 Kislev. » N’est-il pas étrange que le nom de la fête évoque la trêve dans la bataille plutôt que la victoire finale même ?  Pourquoi célébrer un travail inachevé ?

Pour répondre à cette question, penchons-nous sur le rôle des miracles en général, et sur celui de Hanouka en particulier.

Nos Sages nous enseignent qu’il n’existe pas de différence fondamentale entre la Nature et les miracles ; dans les deux cas, la main de Dieu est omniprésente. Cela dit, nous sommes parfois si happés par la routine que nous ne parvenons pas à distinguer l’intervention de Dieu autour de nous. La « Nature » n’est rien de moins que la beauté saisissante et la symétrie de la Création de Dieu, qui se transforme en routine. Le but du miracle, une trêve dans notre quotidien, est d’attirer notre attention sur le contrôle de Dieu sur tous les aspects de la vie, même le plus anodin.

C’est la raison pour laquelle cette fête fut nommée Hanouka, en désignant le répit dans la guerre. Car ce fut uniquement au moment où les Juifs cessèrent leurs combats qu’ils purent constater l’aide divine présente lors de leurs batailles (vouées a priori à l’échec) ; ils n’avaient pas été à même d’apprécier cette aide en plein cœur de la guerre.

Ceci peut nous aider à comprendre une autre question que l’on pose souvent à propos de Hanouka. La petite fiole d’huile contenait suffisamment d’huile pour brûler une journée, et de ce fait, le miracle avait duré sept jours et non huit. Alors pourquoi célébrons-nous Hanouka pendant huit jours ?

La réponse repose sur le même principe. Nous considérons qu’il est tout naturel que l’huile allume une flamme, tandis que le jus de pomme en est incapable. Pourquoi devrait-il en être ainsi ? Pourquoi le jus d’un fruit aurait-il la propriété d’alimenter un feu, tandis que celui d’un autre fruit aurait le pouvoir de l’éteindre ? Nous sommes tellement pris par la routine que nous sommes incapables de voir l’aspect fascinant de la vie ordinaire. Ce huitième jour nous exhorte à distinguer la main de Dieu aussi bien dans le quotidien le plus anodin que dans l’événement miraculeux.

Ce qui nous ramène à la toupie. Sur les côtés de la toupie figurent les lettres hébraïques nounguimel et chine, qui désignent l’expression : ness gadol haya cham : « Un grand miracle a eu lieu ici. »

Lorsque la toupie tourne, les lettres disparaissent et deviennent indistinctes, et ne redeviennent visibles qu’une fois la toupie à l’arrêt.

La toupie est donc une métaphore de nous autres, êtres humains plongés dans le tourbillon vertigineux de la routine quotidienne vertigineuse, qui sommes incapables de distinguer les miracles qui surviennent constamment autour de nous. Mais lorsque nous marquons une pause pour méditer sur nos vies, nos yeux se dessillent et nous laissent entrevoir les miracles infinis qui jalonnent notre existence.

Pourquoi 8 jours ?

Un brin de mysticisme pèse sur la portée profonde de la fête de Hanouka.

Le monde a été créé en sept jours. Il y a sept notes de musique, sept jours de la  semaine. Par conséquent, le chiffre sept incarne le monde physique que l’on peut toucher, humer et palper.

Le chiffre huit, quant à lui, transcende le monde physique. C’est la raison pour laquelle les jours du miracle de Hanouka sont au nombre de huit. Bien que le chiffre huit émane d’une source située au-delà de notre perception sensorielle, notre âme peut encore franchir cette limite et ressentir son impact.

Décret anti-circoncision

Les Grecs vouaient une aversion profonde à la Brit-Mila (la circoncision des garçons au 8ème jour de leur naissance). D’ailleurs, ils ont carrément proscrit cette pratique.

Pourquoi un tel acharnement ?

Pour commencer, la circoncision va à l’encontre de l’idéal grec de la perfection du corps humain. Si la nudité était acceptée par la société grecque, c’est parce que chaque corps est avant tout une œuvre d’art. Les athlètes grecs concouraient nus. Pour les Grecs, la circoncision était la défiguration d’un chef-d’œuvre, un peu comme si on couvrait un Renoir de graffitis.

Pour nous autres, Juifs, la Brit-Mila est l’une des expressions fondamentales de notre identité juive. Dans le Judaïsme, la plus grande beauté de l’homme se manifeste dans sa relation avec Dieu. L’homme le plus beau et le mieux bâti est celui qui reconnaît et accepte l’existence d’une âme transcendante.

À l’époque de l’oppression grecque, la circoncision était interdite, c’était un crime passible de la peine capitale.

Des jours d’élévation spirituelle

Lorsque les Juifs libérèrent le Temple des mains des Grecs, leur première réaction fut d’allumer la Menorah en or. Ils n’avaient qu’une quantité d’huile suffisante pour un jour et la fabrication d’une nouvelle huile prenait sept jours. Mais, un miracle se produisit. Au lieu de brûler un seul jour, la Menorah resta allumée huit jours. Aujourd’hui, nous allumons la Hanoukia durant huit jours en souvenir de ce miracle qui nous inspire fortement.

Sur un plan plus profond, les huit jours de Hanouka sont dédiés à l’élévation spirituelle. Ils sont pour nous l’occasion de méditer sur notre monde intérieur, et de comprendre que le monde physique a beaucoup plus à offrir qu’il n’y paraît.

Les Grecs abhorraient la pratique de la circoncision à cause de son appartenance à l’ « Univers du Huit », celui de la transcendance. Le miracle de la fiole d’huile dura huit jours pour nous rappeler le lien étroit entre le Judaïsme et le monde de la transcendance.

QUIZZ HANOUKA

Question 1


Que fête-t-on à Hanouka ?

La victoire des Maccabées sur les Grecs  

Le miracle de la fiole d’huile qui brûla huit jours au lieu d’un jour 

La reconstruction du temple de Salomon 

Question 2


Combien de jours dure la fête de Hanouka ?

Un jour

Un mois

Huit jours

Question 3

Quel mois tombe la fête de Hanouka ?

Kislev tevet

Adar nissan

Av eloul

Question 4


Combien de bougies contient la Hanouka ?

7

8

10

Question 5

Pourquoi la fête de Hanouka dure-t-elle huit jours ?

Le miracle a duré huit jours.

Sans raison.

La guerre a duré huit jours.

Question 6


Quelle est la particularité du chiffre « huit  » selon les sages de la Torah ?

C’est le chiffre des lois qui se trouvent au-dessus de la nature.

C’est le chiffre de l’échec.

Il n’a pas de particularité.

Question 7


Combien de flammes allume-t-on dans la Menorah (chandelier en or) ?

8

7

10

Question 8


Quel est le lien entre la Menorah et la Hanoukia?

Il n’y a pas de lien.

On allume la Hanoukia en souvenir de la Menorah.

Ce sont deux noms pour un même objet.

Question 9


Pourquoi les Juifs se sont-ils révoltés contre les Grecs, à la période de Hanouka ?

À cause de la cruauté des Grecs.

Parce que les Grecs ont souillé le temple ?

Pour reprendre le pouvoir ?

Question 10


Quand allume-t-on les bougies de Hanouka ?

À la tombée de la nuit.

À midi

Au lever du soleil.

Question 11


Comment s’appelait le cohen (prêtre) qui fut à l’origine de la révolte ?

Tsadok

Eviatar

Matatiyahou

Les 11 Ségoulot de la fête de ‘Hanouka !

‘Hanouka est une fête remplie de différentes Ségoulot et coutumes. Dans cet article, vous découvrirez plusieurs « combines »  pour avoir une tranquillité d’esprit toute l’année, garder les enfants dans le droit chemin ou encore, avoir une meilleure parnassa.

Que se cache-t-il derrière les bougies de Hanouka ? C’est le Or Ha-ganouz (la lumière cachée), cette lumière céleste qui était allumée dans le monde au cours des 36 premières heures (Séfer Harokéa’hHalakhot ‘Hanouka 221).

  1. Téchouva

Rabbi Na’hman de Breslev appelle Hanouka « La fête de Bikour Holim » – Hachem descend près de ses âmes les plus malades.

Les bougies de Hanouka rapprochent l’homme le plus éloigné du monde.

Face aux bougies, priez pour tous ceux qui sont abandonnés et qui ont besoin de faire Téchouva !

  1. Tranquilité

Hachem donne huit jours de tranquillité d’esprit.

L’auteur du « Hévout Yaïr » promet : celui qui s’assoit une demi-heure en face de la Hanoukia, observe les bougies ainsi que le bien qui l’entoure, méritera la tranquillité d’esprit toute l’année.

  1. Optimiste

Le Hida Hakadoch dit : face à la Hanoukia, demandez une seule chose : «  Je veux voir le bien qui se trouve dans chaque personne. Donne-moi un bon œil. Je veux voir le bien qui est en moi, voir le bien qui est dans mes épreuves. »

Voir la vie avec optimisme est une Ségoula que l’on peut obtenir grâce aux bougies de Hanouka : qui ne le voudrait pas ?
 

  1. Mériter des Miracles

Le Hida pleurait du fait qu’il n’avait pas les moyens d’avoir une Hanoukia en argent. On raconte qu’il mettait des verres simples, au centre desquels se trouvait un bougeoir de couleur argenté qui faisait office de Chamach.

Avoir la plus belle Hanoukia possible est une Ségoula pour mériter des miracles.
 

  1. Sagesse

C’est une Ségoula pour la sagesse et la mémoire, et pour avoir des enfants d’un niveau exceptionnel.
 

  1. Des enfants purs

Chaque soir, asseyez-vous et priez face aux bougies… pour la bonne éducation des enfants :

  1. Que les enfants n’aient pas honte d’être religieux. Le Rabbi de Slonim disait : « C’est un moment propice pour demander une génération bénie, droite, de Talmidé Hakhamim, craignant Hachem et intègres… Et des filles pudiques, qui aiment la Torah et craignent Dieu. »
  2. Que nous ayons de la satisfaction de nos enfants, car c’est la condition minimale pour faire grandir des enfants qui réussissent et qui illuminent.
  3. Que nous sachions ne pas montrer plus d’amour pour un enfant de la famille en particulier par rapport à un autre.
  4. Hachem, fais-moi comprendre que dans l’éducation, on ne peut que s’efforcer et espérer les résultats.

On allume les bougies, et ensuite on ne fait que les regarder. Je n’ai aucune maîtrise sur le déroulement de leur combustion.

  1. Que nous intériorisons le message : « Ein lanou réchout léhichtamèch bahèm» « Nous n’avons pas le droit de nous en servir ».

Que nous ne nous « servions » pas des enfants en les oppressant, et d’un autre côté, pas plus pour recevoir de l’admiration de notre entourage.

  1. Que nous méritions d’être un Chamach(serviteur) loyal.

Que nous ne nous sentions pas des parents exploités. Un serviteur loyal connaît aussi sa place : je ne suis pas le copain de mes enfants !

  1. « Ha-nérot halalou kodech hèm» « Ces bougies sont saintes ».

Que je mérite de voir la profondeur et la sainteté de mes enfants.
 

  1. Protection

C’est une Ségoula de dire sept fois à voix haute et la huitième fois à voix basse le verset : « Vihi No’am Hachem Elokénou ‘Alénou Ou-ma’assé Yadénou Konéna ‘Alénou Ou-ma’assé Yadénou Konénéhou » (« Que la bienveillance de l’Éternel, notre Dieu, soit avec nous ! Fais prospérer l’œuvre de nos mains ; oui, l’œuvre de nos mains, fais-la prospérer »).

C’est une excellente Ségoula pour la protection.

De même, réciter tout le chapitre 91 des Téhilim (« Yochev Bé-sétèr ‘Elione… »), Surnommé le « chant des maux », il enlève le mal  du corps et de l’esprit, ainsi que le mauvais œil et les peurs.
 

  1. Écarter le mauvais

Le Hida disait : il récitera le psaume 67 avec la forme de la Ménorah. C’est une Ségoula pour éviter les mauvais évènements, et cela sera considéré comme s’il avait allumé la Ménorah dans le Beth Hamikdach.
 

  1. Zivoug

La veille de Chabbath qui est aussi Hanouka, lorsque les bougies de Chabbath sont allumées à côté de celles de Hanouka, on demandera à Hachem : « Réjouis-nous d’un foyer parfait » (le Rabbi de Slonim).
 

  1. Avoir des enfants

Lors de la huitième bougie de Hanouka, dire : « De la même manière que sont allumées ici huit bougies, que j’ai le mérite de circoncire mon fils le huitième jour » (le Rabbi de Roujzin).

Celui qui doit subir une opération ou doit passer un examen important, prendra sur lui de ne faire aucune Mélakha (travail interdit) au cours de l’un des jours de Hanouka, et il sera sauvé de ce malheur (le Ben Ich ‘Haï).
 

  1. Parnassa

Le père du Rambam disait : « On ne doit pas abandonner cette coutume ancienne des beignets frits et enduits de miel, et lorsque le sfeung est frit dans beaucoup d’huile, il  y aura une bénédiction dans la Parnassa toute l’année. On ne doit pas dénigrer cette coutume, et celui qui s’empresse de faire des sfeung verra des délivrances. »

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