Qu’est-ce que ‘Hanouka?

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Qu’est-ce que ‘Hanouka?

‘Hanouka – la fête des lumières qui dure huit jours à partir de la veille du 25ème jour du mois hébraïque de Kislev – célèbre le triomphe de la lumière sur l’obscurité, de la pureté sur l’altération, de la spiritualité sur le matérialisme.

Il y a plus de 21 siècles, la Terre Sainte était sous la domination des Séleucides (Gréco-Syriens) qui voulurent helléniser de force le peuple d’Israël. Contre toute attente, une petite troupe de Juifs fidèles défit l’une des plus puissantes armées du monde, chassa      les Grecs du pays, reprit le Saint Temple à Jérusalem et le consacra de nouveau au service de D.ieu.

Lorsque ces juifs voulurent allumer la ménorah (le candélabre à sept branches) du Temple, ils ne trouvèrent qu’une seule fiole d’huile que les Grecs n’avaient pas souillée. Miraculeusement, cette provision d’huile à peine suffisante pour un jour brûla pendant huit jours, jusqu’à ce qu’une nouvelle huile satisfaisant aux conditions de pureté rituelle puisse être préparée.

Pour commémorer et faire connaître ces miracles, les Sages instaurèrent la fête de ‘Hanouka. qui compte parmi les sept mitsvot dites « déRabanane » (d’institution rabbinique).

Au centre de cette célébration se trouve l’allumage d’une ménorah (chandelier) chaque soir : une flamme unique le premier soir, deux flammes le second soir et ainsi de suite jusqu’au huitième soir de ‘Hanouka, où les huit lumières sont allumées.

Lois et Coutumes de ‘Hanouka

 

  1. Généralités

 

Cette fête est dédiée aux actions de grâce et à la glorification du Tout-Puissant. Ceci doit se traduire par l’accomplissement des mitsvot de,’Hanouka qui sont :

  1. la récitation du Hallel,
  2. la mention des miracles de D.ieu dans le passage « Al Hanissim »,
  3. l’allumage des lumières de ‘Hanouka à la porte de nos demeures, afin de proclamer au dehors les miracles dont Il nous a gratifiés.

 

Les repas de la fête

Certains pensent que les jours de ‘Hanouka furent également institués comme jours de festin et de réjouissance à l’instar de la fête de Pourim.

Même si la Halakha (la loi juive) ne va pas dans ce sens, il est tout de même coutume de faire, en l’honneur de la fête, des repas plus copieux qu’à l’accoutumée.

Dans tous les cas, les repas de fête qui sont accompagnés de chants et de louanges à D.ieu, ou toute autre manifestation dans le but de proclamer les miracles, sont certainement considérés comme une mitsva et ont, à ce titre, le statut de « Séoudat mitsva ».

Dans certaines communautés, la coutume est de consommer des mets lactés et du fromage pendant les repas de fête, en souvenir du miracle qui eut lieu avec Judith, lorsqu’elle offrit au général ennemi des mets lactés pour l’endormir puis le tuer, ce qui provoqua la déroute des armées ennemies.

La coutume de consommer des beignets ou autres friandises frites, en souvenir du miracle de la fiole d’huile, est quant à elle très largement répandue dans toutes les communautés.

Les travaux pendant la fête

Même si la fête de ‘Hanouka ne fut pas fixée par les Sages comme fête chômée, il est néanmoins de coutume que les femmes n’effectuent pas de travaux pendant la première demi-heure qui suit l’allumage des lumières de la fête.

Cette coutume ne s’applique toutefois qu’aux travaux ménagers non quotidiens, tels que lessive, repassage ou tricot, et n’interdit pas la préparation des mets ni le lavage de la vaisselle.

Certains étendent cette coutume également aux hommes. De fait, la coutume locale prévaudra dans un tel cas.

Le jeûne pendant la fête

Pendant les huit jours de la fête, il est interdit de s’infliger un jeûne. Ceci comprend aussi bien l’interdiction de décréter un jeûne collectif que celle d’observer un jeûne à titre personnel (à l’occasion d’un Yahrtseit ou encore le ‘Hatan le jour de son mariage).

De même, il est interdit de prononcer des oraisons funèbres pendant ces huit jours, sauf en l’honneur d’un homme sage et érudit, en présence de sa dépouille.

Le deuil pendant la fête

Toutes les règles concernant le deuil restent applicables pendant les huit jours de ‘Hanouka tout comme pendant Roch ‘Hodech.

  1. L’emplacement de l’allumage

 

L’emplacement

Comme expliqué au chapitre précédent, l’allumage des lumières de ‘Hanouka fut institué par nos Sages afin de faire démonstration des miracles de la fête.

Aussi, elles devront être allumées à la porte d’entrée de la maison, lorsque celle-ci donne sur la rue. Si l’entrée donne sur une cour privée, elles seront allumées à l’entrée de la cour.

S’il s’agit d’un appartement en étage, elles devront être allumées près d’une fenêtre qui donne sur la rue.

Toutefois, l’allumage qui se fait à tout autre endroit de la maison, est considéré comme acceptable.

Lorsque l’allumage se fait à la porte, les lumières devront être placées contre le poteau gauche de l’encadrement de la porte, face à la Mézouzah (qui se trouve à droite). Lorsque le mur d’entrée est épais, l’allumage se fera dans l’épaisseur du mur gauche de l’entrée, faisant face à la Mézouzah. Ce choix est fait dans le but d’être entouré, de part et d’autre, par une mitsva.

Dans ce dernier cas, on aura soin de placer les lumières le plus près possible de la limite extérieure du mur d’épaisseur de l’entrée, de façon à les rendre le plus visible possible à l’extérieur.

La hauteur

Afin que les lumières puissent aisément être remarquées, elles devront préférablement être allumées à une hauteur minimale de 30 cm (3 tefa’him) du sol, et à une hauteur maximale de 80 cm (10 tefa’him) du sol. Toutefois l’allumage reste acceptable s’il est fait en dehors de ces limites.

Cependant, si l’allumage est fait à une hauteur supérieure à 9,6 m (10amoth) du sol, il ne sera pas acceptable. Celui-ci devra être recommencé à une hauteur autorisée, et la première bénédiction répétée. (Il ne sera pas permis de déplacer les lumières à une hauteur inférieure après qu’elles aient été allumées à une hauteur non permise).

De nos jours

En pratique, de nos jours, la coutume a été prise dans de nombreuses communautés d’allumer à l’intérieur de la maison. Soit parce que l’entrée de la maison ne donne pas toujours sur la rue, soit (dans le passé) en raison de la présence de non-juifs hostiles dans la rue.

D’autre part, l’allumage à la fenêtre n’est possible qu’en deçà de la limite maximale permise. De plus l’allumage à la fenêtre comporte un inconvénient majeur dans le cas de plusieurs modèles de Hannoukiot (candélabres de ‘Hanouka) munies d’un panneau frontal. En effet, dans ce cas, lorsque les lumières sont dirigées vers la fenêtre, elles ne sont pas visibles aux personnes vivant à l’intérieur.

Pour toutes les raisons pratiques citées plus haut, et d’autres encore d’ordre ésotérique (selon le Arizal), la coutume est d’allumer contre le poteau gauche à l’entrée de l’une des pièces de la maison, face à la Mézouzah.

 

  1. Procédure et bénédictions de l’allumage

 

Nombres de lumières

Bien qu’il soit possible de s’acquitter de son obligation en allumant une seule lumière chacun des soirs de ‘Hanouka ‘Hanouka, la coutume très largement répandue dans toutes les communautés, consiste à augmenter leur nombre au fur et à mesure.

Le premier soir une lumière est allumée, le second, deux, et ainsi de suite jusqu’au dernier soir où l’on allume huit lumières. Cette pratique vient souligner le fait que le miracle de la fiole d’huile augmentait à mesure des jours écoulés.

Les nombres qui ont été mentionnés correspondent aux lumières allumées à titre de mitsva du jour, et ne tiennent pas compte de la lumière dite du Chamach, dont la fonction sera expliquée au chapitre suivant.

Disposition des lumières

La mitsva consiste à allumer des lumières individuelles. Pour cela il faudra veiller à espacer chacune d’elles suffisamment pour que l’ensemble n’ait pas l’aspect d’un brasier. (De plus, s’il s’agit de bougies, leur proximité pourrait provoquer leur fusion).

Pour cette même raison, il faudra veiller à disposer les lumières en ligne droite et non en zigzag ou en cercle.

Toutefois il est permis que les mèches de deux lumières adjacentes plongent dans le même récipient d’huile, à condition que les flammes soient suffisamment espacées.

Les bénédictions

Avant de procéder à l’allumage, les bénédictions appropriées devront être récitées. L’allumage ne doit commencer qu’après avoir complété toutes les bénédictions appropriées.

En cas d’omission :

  • de la première bénédiction alors que l’allumage est commencé, possibilité de la réciter tant que celui-ci n’est pas achevé
  • de la seconde bénédiction, possibilité de la réciter après l’allumage, à la vue des lumières
  • de la troisième bénédiction, nécessité d’attendre attendre le soir suivant au moment de l’allumage pour la réciter. Si cet oubli s’est répété jusqu’au dernier soir, il sera encore possible de la réciter durant la dernière journée

 

 

« Hanérot Hallalou »

Après l’allumage, on a coutume de réciter le passage « Hanérot Hallalou », pour indiquer que les lumières ont été allumées pour louer l’Éternel, et qu’elles ne doivent servir à aucun autre usage.

Dans certaines communautés, la coutume est de commencer à réciter ce passage après avoir allumé la première lumière, qui constitue l’essentiel de la mitsva.

Chez les Sépharadim, on a coutume de réciter à la suite, le Psaume 30 (Mizmor Chir Hannoucat Habaït). Chez les Achkénazim, on a l’habitude de chanter l’hymne « Ma’oz Tsour ».

Ordre de l’allumage

L’ordre dans lequel les lumières doivent être allumées diffère selon les communautés.

En pratique, la coutume la plus répandue est d’allumer le premier jour la lumière la plus à droite. Puis, le second jour, allumer une seconde lumière à gauche de celle de la veille, et continuer l’allumage vers la droite. Ainsi de suite, jusqu’au dernier soir, où l’on allume la lumière la plus à gauche, puis les suivantes en allant de la gauche vers la droite.

  1. Le nécessaire d’allumage

 

L’huile et les bougies

Toutes les huiles ou combustibles sont propres à l’allumage des lumières de ‘Hanouka

Toutefois l’huile d’olive est à préférer, en raison du miracle qui eut lieu avec celle-ci. A défaut, une huile de qualité, produisant une flamme claire devra être choisie.

De même l’allumage peut se faire avec des bougies; dans ce cas les bougies en cire d’abeille sont à préférer.

En pratique, la coutume chez les Sépharadim est d’utiliser de l’huile d’olive. Parmi les Achkénazim, certains ont coutume d’utiliser des bougies de cire.

Les mèches

Les mèches de toutes fibres sont propres à l’allumage.

Cependant, il est préférable d’utiliser des mèches de qualité, telles que celles en lin ou en coton, qui produisent une belle flamme.

Certains préfèrent utiliser les mêmes mèches d’un soir à l’autre, afin de réutiliser pour une mitsva ce qui a déjà servi pour une mitsva. Dans ce cas, on aura soin d’allumer la « nouvelle » lumière avec une mèche de la veille. D’autres préfèrent utiliser des mèches neuves à chaque allumage, dans le désir d’embellir la mitsva.

Le Chamach

Comme il a été mentionné au chapitre précédent, les lumières de ‘Hanouka sont allumées pour la sanctification du nom de D.ieu. En tant que telles, elles ne doivent servir à aucune utilisation personnelle, qu’elle soit d’ordre profane ou religieux.

Pour cette raison, l’habitude est d’allumer chaque soir, à côté des lumières de la fête, une lumière supplémentaire appelée Chamach. Celle-ci permet de mettre en évidence le fait que les autres lumières ont été allumées pour la mitsva, et ne doivent pas être utilisées. D’autre part, en cas d’erreur, on ne se trouvera pas à utiliser les lumières interdites, mais plutôt celle du Chamach.

Chez les Sépharadim, la coutume est d’allumer le Chamach après avoir allumé les lumières de la fête, et de le placer quelque peu à l’écart des autres lumières.

Les Achkénazim ont l’habitude d’utiliser pour Chamach la bougie qui a servi à l’allumage, puis de la placer en surplomb des autres lumières.

La Ménorah – Candélabre

L’obligation d’embellir la mitsva s’applique aussi à la Ménorah elle-même. Pour cela il est souhaitable, si l’on en a les moyens, d’acquérir une Ménorah en argent. Tout au moins, on évitera d’utiliser une Ménorah de fortune.

L’huile restante

L’huile non consumée provenant de lumières qui se sont éteintes pourra être utilisée pour les besoins de l’allumage suivant. Par contre, l’huile non consumée après l’allumage du dernier jour sera interdite à tout usage, puisqu’elle a été utilisée pour la mitsva. Il ne sera pas même permis de la conserver jusqu’à l’année suivante et l’utiliser pour ‘Hanouka de crainte que l’on en vienne à l’utiliser en courant d’année par erreur. Elle devra donc être détruite ou brûlée.

L’huile restante dans la bouteille qui a servi aux besoins de l’allumage est, quant à elle, parfaitement utilisable après la fête.

  1. L’heure d’allumage

 

Le temps fixé

  1. La durée minimale, instituée par les Sages, pendant laquelle les lumières doivent brûler, est d’une demi-heure. (Période durant laquelle il se trouvait encore des passants dans la rue, à l’époque).
  2. Certains pensent que cette demi-heure commence à la tombée de la nuit (apparition des étoiles). D’autres au contraire, pensent qu’il faut allumer entre 15 à 20 minutes avant la tombée de la nuit.
  3. Le fait d’avancer l’horaire d’allumage selon le premier avis, n’est pas ici préjudiciable. En effet, il est permis, en cas de nécessité (lorsque l’on n’aura pas la possibilité de le faire plus tard, ou tout simplement à la veille de Chabbat), de devancer l’allumage à partir du « Plag HaMin’ha» (soit une heure et quart avant le coucher du soleil).

Pour celui qui a l’habitude de se rendre à la synagogue pour prier Arvit à la tombée de la nuit, il sera préférable d’agir selon le deuxième avis et de se rendre à la synagogue après l’allumage, car dans le cas contraire il ne sera pas en mesure d’allumer à temps.

Passé ce temps

Passée cette demi-heure, il sera permis d’allumer, en récitant les bénédictions, pendant toute la nuit jusqu’à l’aube (Alot HaCha’har). Même dans ce cas, il sera nécessaire de prévoir à ce que les lumières brûlent pendant une demi-heure au moins (50 minutes).

A l’aube, il n’est plus possible d’allumer en récitant les bénédictions. Néanmoins, le soir suivant on allumera les lumières en même nombre que tout le monde, (et non pas le nombre de la veille).

Tard dans la nuit

Certains pensent que de nos jours, puisque l’allumage se fait essentiellement pour les personnes vivant à l’intérieur de la maison, il est préférable d’attendre que tous les membres de la famille soient rentrés avant de procéder à l’allumage. Ceci pour répondre à l’impératif de « Pirsoumei Nissa » (publier le miracle par l’allumage).

Une fois la mitsva accomplie

Après que les lumières aient brûlé pendant le temps nécessaire (30 ou 50 minutes), la mitsva ayant été accomplie, il serait permis de les déplacer, les utiliser ou les éteindre.

  1. L’obligation d’allumage

 

L’importance de l’allumage

Bien qu’il s’agisse d’un commandement rabbinique, les Sages ont accordé une importance capitale à l’allumage des lumières de ‘Hanouka. Il faudrait même accepter de mendier pour se procurer l’huile ou les bougies nécessaires à l’allumage.

De plus, cette obligation incombe également aux hommes et aux femmes. En effet, même si, en règle générale, les femmes sont exemptes d’accomplir les commandements assignés à un temps précis, il en va autrement en ce qui concerne l’obligation d’allumage. La raison à cela, invoquée par les Sages, est que les femmes, au même titre que les hommes, ont bénéficié des miracles de D.ieu qui sont commémorés lors de cette fête. Plus encore, le Salut Divin est venu en grande partie grâce à l’intervention d’une femme, Judith.

En pratique

Selon la coutume Sépharade, seul le chef de famille procède à l’allumage et acquitte par cet acte tous les membres de la famille, ainsi que les personnes qui mangent quotidiennement à sa table.

Ces derniers devront écouter attentivement les bénédictions récitées, avoir à l’esprit de s’acquitter de leur obligation et répondre Amen.

Les interdits avant l’allumage

Une demi-heure avant l’heure d’allumage, il est interdit de commencer un repas ou toute autre occupation qui risque de se prolonger. Par ailleurs, toute occupation, même s’il s’agit de l’étude de la Torah ou d’une autre occupation qui a débuté en période permise (avant la demi-heure), doit être interrompue, le moment de l’allumage venu.

  1. Règles concernant l’allumage

 

Déplacer les lumières

Même si la mitsva est accomplie après l’allumage, il n’est pas permis de déplacer les lumières pendant la première demi-heure qui suit l’allumage (voir chapitre 5). De même, il est interdit de tenir en main la Ménorah pendant l’allumage, même si l’intention est de la reposer par la suite.

La raison de ces interdictions est que tout déplacement des lumières après l’allumage pourrait laisser croire à notre entourage que celui-ci a été fait à des fins personnelles et non pas pour la mitsva.

Cependant, certains permettent de tenir la Ménorah en main pendant l’allumage et de la reposer aussitôt. Cette méthode pourra être utilisée dans le cas d’une personne alitée, qui n’est pas en mesure de s’approcher pour faire l’allumage.

Les lumières qui s’éteignent

Puisque la mitsva est accomplie une fois que les lumières ont été allumées correctement, si une ou plusieurs lumières venaient à s’éteindre durant la première demi-heure, il n’y aurait pas d’obligation de les rallumer. Ceci à condition toutefois qu’elles n’aient pas été allumées à un endroit soumis à un courant d’air qui aurait provoqué leur extinction.

Cependant, beaucoup pensent qu’il est de notre devoir, dans un tel cas, de les rallumer (sans répéter les bénédictions), particulièrement si elles se sont éteintes avant que l’allumage n’ait été achevé.

Si cela survenait la veille de Chabbat, après que l’on ait accepté le Chabbat, il faudra, si possible, demander à quelqu’un qui n’a pas encore fait entrer Chabbat de les allumer pour nous.

Les bénédictions

 

Avant l’allumage, le maître de maison, et éventuellement tous les garçons de la maison lorsque ceux-ci allument leur propre Ménorah, prononcent les deux bénédictions :

1. « Barou’h Ata Ado-naï Elo-hénou Mélè’h Haolam Achère Kidéchanou Bemitsvotav Vetsivanou Lehadlik Ner ‘Hanouka »

Béni sois-Tu, Éternel notre D.ieu, Roi de l’Univers, qui nous a sanctifiés par Ses commandements et nous a ordonné d’allumer les lumières de ‘Hanouka.

puis

2. « Barou’h Ata Ado-naï Elo-hénou Mélè’h Haolam Chéassa Nissim Laavoténou Bayamime Hahème, Bizmane Hazé »

Béni sois-Tu, Éternel notre D.ieu, Roi de l’Univers, qui a fait des miracles pour nos pères en ces jours-là, en ce temps-ci.

Le premier soir de la fête, on ajoute la bénédiction :

3. « Barou’h Ata Ado-naï Elo-hénou Mélè’h Haolam Chéhé’heyanou Vekiyemanou Vehiguianou Lizmane Hazé »

Béni sois-Tu, Éternel notre D.ieu, Roi de l’Univers, qui nous a fait vivre, exister et parvenir jusqu’à ce moment.

 

 

 

  1. Les autres obligations

 

« Al Hanissim »

  1. Pendant les huit jours de ‘Hanouka le passage « Al Hanissim» doit être intercalé dans chacune des prières de la Amidah (y compris celle de Moussaf), à la 17ème bénédiction (celle de Modim), dans le but de remercier et de louer l’Éternel pour les miracles de la fête.
  2. Si ce passage a été omis à l’endroit prescrit, il sera possible de reprendre tant que la mention du Nom de D.ieu, à la conclusion de cette bénédiction, n’a pas encore été faite.
  3. Dans le cas contraire, il n’y aura pas lieu de recommencer cette bénédiction (et encore moins toute la Amidah). Il faudra cependant, si cela est encore possible, le réciter à la fin de la Amida avant de dire le second « yéhi ratsone» de conclusion.
  4. Toutefois, il sera interdit d’omettre volontairement ce passage, même si l’intention est de terminer plus rapidement afin de pouvoir répondre à la Kédoucha.
  5. De même, ce passage doit être incorporé à la deuxième bénédiction du Birkat Hamazone récité après chacun des repas de la fête.
  6. En cas d’omission, ce passage pourra être repris avant d’avoir prononcé le nom de D.ieu à la conclusion de cette bénédiction.
  7. Au-delà, il n’y aura pas lieu de reprendre. Il suffira de le mentionner à la fin du Birkat Hamazone sous la forme suivante :

« Hara’hamanne Hou Yaassé Lanou Nissim Kemo Chéassa LaAvoteinou BaYamim HaHem BiZmane HaZé… »

Le Hallel

  1. Pendant les huit jours de ‘Hanouka le Hallel doit être récité à l’issue de la prière de Cha’harit, afin de louer l’Éternel pour le miracle qui s’est répété pendant huit jours.
  2. Le Hallel sera récité sous sa forme complète, et précédé de la bénédiction appropriée. (« Ligmor êt HaHallel» chez les Sépharadim).
  3. Par ailleurs, on omettra de dire pendant ces huit jours (ainsi qu’à l’office de Min’ha la veille de fête), les supplications (Ta’hanoun) quotidiennes, ainsi que tout passage (tel que le psaume 20 à l’office du matin) qui est généralement omis en de tels jours.

La lecture de la Torah

  1. Pendant les huit jours de la fête, une lecture publique de la Torah est faite à la synagogue à l’office du matin. Cette lecture qui se fait à propos de l’inauguration du Michkan ‘Hanouka venant aussi commémorer l’inauguration du Temple), remplace la lecture hebdomadaire du lundi et du jeudi.
  2. Trois personnes sont appelées à cette lecture. Le découpage des portions lues par chacun des appelés diffère selon les coutumes. (Consulter le Sidour pour plus de précisions).
  3. Le Chabbat de ‘Hanouka, après avoir appelé sept personnes à la lecture de la section hebdomadaire, le Maftir(huitième appelé) lira, dans un deuxième Séfer Torah la portion journalière de ‘Hanouka, suivie de la Haftarahde ‘Hanouka (qui remplace la Haftarah hebdomadaire). S’il y a deux Chabbat dans ‘Hanouka une deuxième Haftarah de fête est prévue.
  4. Roch ‘Hodech Tévèt (qui se trouve toujours être un ou deux jours pendant ‘Hanouka), trois personnes sont appelés à la lecture de Roch ‘Hodech. Le quatrième appelé lira, dans un deuxième Séfer Torah, la portion de ’Hanouka du jour.
  5. Lorsque Roch ‘Hodech Tévèt tombe Chabbat, six personnes sont appelées à la lecture de la section Hebdomadaire. Le septième appelé lira, dans un deuxième Séfer Torah, la section de Roch ‘Hodech. Le Maftir(8ème appelé) lira, dans un troisième Séfer Torah, la portion journalière de ‘Hanouka, suivie de la Haftarah.
  6. Lorsque Roch ‘Hodech Tévèt comporte deux jours et que Chabbat tombe le premier jour de Roch ‘Hodech (il ne peut jamais tomber le deuxième jour), on a coutume chez ‘Habad de rajouter à la fin de la lecture de la Haftarah(qui est celle de ‘Hanouka), le premier et le dernier verset de la Haftarahde Roch ‘Hodech (qui est repoussée), ainsi que le premier et le dernier verset de laHaftarah de Ma’har ‘Hodech (qui est également repoussée).

 

Pourquoi jouons-nous à la toupie à ‘Hanouka?

Un passe-temps favori des enfants comme des adultes lors de la fête de ‘Hanouka est de jouer avec une toupie (en hébreu : « sevivone », en yiddish : « dreidel »). Ce sympathique jeu a une histoire ancienne. La toupie a quatre lettres de l’alphabet hébraïque, imprimées sur chacun de ses quatre côtés. En Israël, les lettres sont NounGuimel et , qui représentent la phrase Nès Gadol Haya Poh – un grand miracle s’est produit ici. En dehors d’Israël, les lettres sont NounGuimel et Chine, qui signifient Nès Gadol Haya Cham – un grand miracle s’est produit là-bas.

Le jeu se joue en distribuant à tous les participants soit des noix, des chocolats, ou du ‘Hanouka Guelt (des pièces). Chacun place une pièce au milieu et l’un des participants fait tourner la toupie. Si la toupie s’arrête en montrant le Noun, il ne gagne pas, mais ne perd pas non plus. Si c’est Guimel, il remporte le pot entier. Si c’est , il reçoit la moitié du pot. Si c’est Chine, il doit rajouter une pièce dans le pot.

Le jeu se poursuit avec la personne suivante et ainsi de suite jusqu’à ce que quelqu’un ait remporté tout le contenu du pot. Il est bien sûr bon de distribuer de nombreux lots de consolation pour que chacun puisse sortir gagnant !

Quelle est l’origine de ce jeu merveilleux ? À la base, en fait, c’était un jeu de vie ou de mort. L’occupation des Gréco-Syriens était de plus en plus oppressante. Au début, ils avaient estimé qu’ils parviendraient à convertir la population juive à leurs manières païennes en étant gentils et doux avec eux. À leur grande déception, les Juifs restèrent fermement attachés à leur propre religion (à part un petit pourcentage qui devint hellénisé).

Frustré par son peu de succès, le puissant régime grec décréta une série de lois interdisant l’étude de la Torah en tant qu’activité religieuse. Les Grecs interdirent aussi de nombreux commandements juifs comme la circoncision et l’observance du Shabbat. Les Juifs durent étudier la Torah clandestinement au péril de leur vie, car ils savaient qu’un Juif sans Torah est comme un poisson hors de l’eau.

Afin de cacher leur activité aux yeux des Grecs, les Enfants d’Israël durent aller étudier la Torah dans les campagnes et les forêts. Mais ce plan n’était pas infaillible, car l’ennemi envoyait de nombreuses patrouilles. Les Juifs se munirent donc de petites toupies avec lesquelles ils se mettaient rapidement à jouer après avoir caché leurs textes, prétendant s’être simplement rassemblés pour jouer à des jeux.

Cette ruse fonctionna, et la chaîne ininterrompue d’érudition du peuple juif dans la Torah demeura heureusement intacte !

 

LES CHANTS DE HANOUKA

 

Maoz Tsour

Ce chant traditionnel de ‘Hanouka est chanté dans certaines communautés après l’allumage de la Ménorah.

Translitération du premier couplet:

Ma-oz tsour yé-chou-a-ti, lé-kha na-é lé-cha-bé-a’h.

Ti-kone beit té-fi-la-ti, vé-cham to-da né-za-bé-a’h.

Lé-êt ta-khine mat-bé-a’h, mi-tsar hame-na-bé-a’h.

Az ég-mor, bé-chir miz-mor, ‘ha-nou-kat ha-miz-bé-a’h.(bis)

Traduction du premier couplet :

Puissante citadelle de mon salut,
Te louer est un délice.

Restaure la Maison de ma prière
et là, nous apporterons le sacrifice d’action de grâce.

A l’époque où Tu prépares l’écrasement
de l’ennemi qui blasphème

Alors j’achèverai par un chant de louange,
l’inauguration de l’Autel.

 

Hanérot Halalou

 

Après avoir allumées les lumières de ‘Hanouka, il est de coutume de réciter ou chanter l’hymne Hanérot Halalou.

Ha-nei-rot ha-la-lou a-nou mad-li-kine
Al ha-te-chou-ot ve-al ha-ni-ssim ve-al ha-nif-la-ot,
Ché-a-si-ta la-avo-té-nou ba-ya-mim ha-heim biz-mane ha-zeh,
Al yé-dei ko-ha-ne-kha ha-ke-do-chim,
Ve-khol che-mo-nat yé-mei ‘ha-nou-kah ha-nei-rot ha-la-lou ko-dech hem,
Vé-ein la-nou ré-chout le-hich-ta-meish ba-hène,
E-la lir-o-tane bil-vad, ke-dei lé-ho-dot ou-le-ha-leil le-chim-kha ha-ga-dol Al ni-sé-kha ve-al nif-lé-o-té-kha ve-al ye-chou-o-té-kha.

Traduction:

Nous allumons ces lumières pour [commémorer] les actes de rédemption, les miracles et les merveilles que Tu as accomplis pour nos ancêtres, en ces jours et à cette époque, à travers Tes saints prêtres. Et durant les huits jours de ‘Hanouka, ces lumières sont sacrées, et nous n’avons pas le droit d’en faire usage, mais seulement de les observer, afin de rendre hommage et louer Ton saint Nom, pour Tes miracles, pour Tes merveilles et pour Tes actes de rédemption.

 

 

 

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