Kippour

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Réflexions sur « Shabbat Téchouva » dit :«Shabbat Shouva»

 

– Introduction –

Le Shabbath Téchouva est, comme on le sait, le Shabbat situé dans les 10 jours de repentir (assara yémé téchouva). Ces dix jours commencent avec les deux jours de Roch Hachana et s’achèvent avec le jour de Kippour. Le nom « Shabbath Shouva » (Shabbat « Reviens »), découle du premier mot de la haftara de ce samedi (Osée, XIV, 2) : « Reviens Israël jusqu’à l’Éternel ton Dieu, car tu as trébuché dans ton iniquité. »

shabbat téchouva
allumage des bougies de shabbat téchouva

Cette haftara n’est pas liée au contenu de la paracha Vayélekh, lue, généralement, durant ce Shabbat (parfois, nous lisons la paracha Aazinou), mais elle s’inscrit dans le thème des « jours redoutables », et traite du repentir. À la fin de sa lecture, nous rajoutons, traditionnellement, trois versets supplémentaires tirés du prophète Michée (VII, 18 à 20), qui annoncent que le repentir se réalisera : « Qui est divinité comme Toi qui pardonnes la faute et passes sur la transgression, en faveur du reste de ton héritage ? Il n’entretient pas sa colère à jamais, car il prend plaisir à la fidélité. Il aura encore compassion de nous, il piétinera nos fautes. Tu jetteras au fond de la mer tous leurs péchés, Tu offriras Ta loyauté à Jacob, Ta fidélité à Abraham, comme Tu l’as juré aux jours de jadis, à nos pères. »

 

Shabbath Shouva est, dans les faits, une préparation au jour de Kippour. On comprend pourquoi, dans  la ferveur populaire, ce jour porte ce nom. Ceci est d’autant plus compréhensible si nous déterminons le repentir comme étant l’élément spécifique de Kippour par rapport au reste de l’année ; tout en soulignant, cependant, comme nous l’avons dit, qu’en vérité la spécificité de Kippour n’est pas d’être le jour du repentir, mais le jour distingué pour rappeler à l’homme le principe de la téchouva, qui ne dépend ni d’un temps, ni d’un lieu particuliers.

Que fait-on la veille de Yom Kippour ?

Séli’hot

Nous avons l’habitude de multiplier dès l’aurore les Séli’hot et les supplications, la veille de Yom Kippour. Et si l’on dit les Séli’hot après le lever du soleil, on devra omettre le Vidouïe (énumération de ses fautes). On a coutume de faire Hatarat nédarim (annulation des vœux) la veille de Yom Kippour.

Cha’harit

Pendant la prière du matin, on ne dit ni le Vidouïe, ni les passages qui le suivent (« Néfilat apaïm »). On ne récite pas non plus le Téhilim « Ya’ankha Hachem béyom tsara »non plus que « Téfila léDavid ».
Kapparots

Avant le jour du pardon, il est de coutume d’accomplir une expiation symbolique de nos fautes et de celles de nos proches, à l’aide d’un poulet que nous faisons tourner autour de notre tête en récitant un texte approprié.

Grâce au mérite de la Tsédaka (don) que nous effectuons, nous rachetons nos fautes et demandons à Dieu d’expier ainsi nos pêchés.

Cette cérémonie des Kapparot est enracinée dans des sources saintes existant depuis la période des Guéonim, il y a environ mille ans. De nos jours, elle est largement répandue dans de nombreuses communautés de par le monde.

Elle consiste à prendre un coq pour chaque homme de la maison et une poule pour chaque femme. Pour une femme enceinte, il faudra un coq et deux poules, car on ne sait pas si elle porte un garçon ou une fille. Pour une personne aux moyens limités, il suffira de prévoir un coq pour tous les hommes et une poule pour toutes les femmes de la maison. On peut embellir cette pratique en prenant des coqs blancs pour les hommes, en vertu du verset [Yéch’ayaou 1.18] : « Oh ! Venez, réconcilions-nous, dit l’Éternel ! Vos péchés, fussent-ils de couleur rouge-sang, ils peuvent devenir blancs comme neige… » Il est préférable que le chef de famille fasse tourner le coq, en premier lieu, au-dessus de sa tête, puis au-dessus des  têtes des autres membres de sa famille. Comme il est dit à propos du Cohen Gadol (Grand Prêtre) : « Il fera expiation pour lui et pour sa maison ». Ainsi, il acquerra lui-même un mérite et pourra faire expier les autres. [Chlah, ‘Havat Yaïr, Kaf Ha’haïm]

Les pensées de repentir

Nous devons penser à faire Téchouva au moment des Kapparot. De plus, il faudra avoir l’intention que tout ce que l’on fait subir au poulet soit un exemple des quatre mises à mort infligées par le tribunal terrestre et qui auraient dû nous être administrées  personnellement. En effet, lorsque le Cho’het (abatteur rituel) tient le cou du poulet, cela fait office de strangulation. Lorsqu’il l’abat, cela correspond à la mort par l’épée. Lorsqu’il le frappe au sol, c’est l’équivalent de la lapidation. Puis, quand il le déplume et le grille, cela correspond à la mort par le feu. Dès lors qu’il s’identifie ainsi et pense à se repentir sincèrement, Hachem, dont la main droite est tendue et prête à recevoir les repentants, lui pardonnera.

Demander pardon à son prochain

Le repentir et le jour de Yom Kippour permettent d’expier les fautes commises vis-à-vis d’Hachem, comme manger des aliments interdits, etc. En revanche, aucune transgression accomplie vis-à-vis d’autrui, comme blesser ou maudire son prochain, n’obtiendra jamais d’expiation, jusqu’à ce que la personne fautive rembourse à l’autre ce qu’elle lui doit et s’excuse. Même si elle s’est moquée d’autrui par de simples paroles, elle devra lui demander pardon, jusqu’à ce que celui-ci l’excuse. Car les délits occasionnés avec la bouche sont pires que ceux touchant à l’argent. Et a fortiori, si elle a fait honte à son prochain et a fait pâlir son visage, cette faute est comparée au meurtre.

 

Manger la veille de Yom Kippour

Il est obligatoire, d’après la Torah, de manger, boire et de multiplier les repas, la veille de Yom Kippour. A priori, on mangera du pain, au moins au cours d’un des repas. Ce commandement est valable pour les femmes également. Même pour une personne malade, qui est en danger et doit manger le jour de Kippour, manger la veille constitue une Mitsva.

Miséricordieux comme un père envers ses fils

Une des raisons pour lesquelles nous devons manger la veille de Kippour s’explique par l’anecdote suivante : un père dont le fils s’était mal comporté, se mit en colère et lui ordonna de jeûner durant un jour. Dans sa miséricorde, il lui ordonna également de boire et manger la veille du jour prescrit pour le jeûne afin qu’il puisse le supporter. De même, Hachem, notre Père miséricordieux, nous a ordonné de jeûner le jour de Kippour et de nous renforcer en mangeant et buvant la veille. Une autre raison est évoquée à ce sujet : lorsque le cœur de l’homme est rassasié, alors il fait la paix avec son prochain la veille de Kippour.
Les différents travaux et l’étude de la Torah

Celui qui travaille la veille de Kippour  ne verra pas la bénédiction s’étendre sur son labeur. Même les étudiants rivés à leurs livres de Torah devront multiplier les repas, même s’ils doivent réduire pour cela leur temps d’étude.
Des plats légers

Il ne faut manger, la veille de Kippour, que des plats légers, faciles à digérer, afin de ne pas être trop rassasié ni s’enorgueillir au moment de la prière. Certains ont l’habitude de manger du poisson en l’honneur de ce jour, au repas du matin, mais s’en abstiennent par la suite. Le reste de la journée, il ne faudra pas manger des plats  « excitants » pour le corps, tels que des œufs, du lait, de l’ail cuit, du poisson, de la viande grasse, et autres.
Le Mikvé (le bain rituel)

Il est important d’honorer la coutume de s’immerger dans un Mikvé la veille de Yom Kippour, afin de prier en état de pureté. Le bain représente également un aspect du repentir, à l’image d’un converti se trempant dans un Mikvé, avant sa conversion. Dans le cas d’une personne malade, il sera judicieux qu’elle se tienne sous le jet de sa douche le temps que soit versé sur elle le volume de neuf kavim (douze litres et demi) d’eau. Quant aux officiants, ils prêteront une attention toute particulière à ce rituel.

Malkout (la flagellation)

Il est parfois d’usage, la veille de Yom Kippour, que tous les membres de l’assemblée soient frappés symboliquement de trente-neuf coups très légers et que chacun dise leVidouïe pendant ce temps-là.  Celui qui donne les ‘coups’ récitera trois fois le verset : « Véhou ra’houm yékhaper ‘avon… ». À chaque mot, il frappera en veillant à ne pas faire mal. Cette coutume a pour but d’éveiller le cœur au repentir.
La prière de Min’ha (après-midi)

On fera la prière de Min’ha avant la Sé’ouda mafseket (le dernier repas avant le jeûne). Et l’on dira le long Vidouïe à la fin de la ‘Amida, de peur que quelque chose ne se produise lors de la Sé’ouda mafseket, et qui empêcherait de le réciter par la suite.
Sé’ouda mafseket

Certains ont l’habitude de tremper le pain du Motsi dans du sucre. Il est souhaitable d’y adjoindre du sel.
Recevoir le jour de Kippour

Il faudra cesser de manger et boire alors qu’il fait encore jour. C’est un commandement de laTorah de faire cesser la fête avant son heure véritable. Les femmes aussi devront faire attention à cela. On a l’habitude d’ajouter environ quinze minutes avant le coucher du soleil.
La réception par la parole

Bien que l’on ait fini la Sé’ouda mafseket et que l’on pense ne plus manger ni boire, on sera autorisé à le faire, avant le coucher du soleil, tant qu’on n’a pas signalé explicitement que l’on commençait à jeûner.
De beaux habits

Les Sages ont dit [Traité Chabbath 119a],  à propos du verset « Si tu cesses de fouler aux pieds le Chabbath, de vaquer à tes affaires en ce jour qui m’est consacré, si tu considères le Chabbath comme un délice, la sainte journée de l’Ėternel comme signe de respect, si tu la tiens en honneur en t’abstenant de suivre tes voies ordinaires, de t’occuper de tes intérêts et d’en faire le sujet de tes entretiens, alors […] », qu’il évoque Yom Kippour. En effet, on honore ce jour sans  aliment ni boisson en revêtissent de beaux habits. On recouvrira la table d’une jolie nappe, comme pour Chabbath, et on posera dessus des livres de Torah. Certains Achkénazes portent un habit blanc appelé « Kittel ». [259]

 

YOM KIPPOUR

Yom Kippour commémore le jour où Dieu à pardonné le Peuple Juif pour la faute du Veau d’Or. Quarante jours après avoir entendu au Mont Sinaï de Dieu lui-même : « Vous n’aurez pas d’autres dieux que Moi, vous ne devez pas faire de représentation », les Juifs transgressèrent ce commandement et commirent la faute de l’idolâtrie. Moche (Moïse) passa deux séjours de quarante jours au sommet de la montagne, plaidant auprès de Dieu pour le pardon des Juifs. Le dixième jour du mois hébraïque de Tichri, le pardon fut finalement accordé. Depuis ce moment, le Jour du Grand Pardon est célébré chaque année comme une commémoration de notre relation particulière avec Dieu, une relation assez solide pour survivre à toute épreuve. C’est un jour où nous nous connectons avec l’essence même de notre être, qui reste fidèle à Dieu, indépendamment de notre comportement concret.

Yom Kippour est le seul jour de l’année qui requiert cinq prières obligatoires. Selon la Kabbale, l’âme juive est composée de 5 parties. Le jour atteint son sommet au cours de la cinquième prière, Neïla, lorsque nous accédons au niveau le plus haut de notre Âme, le niveau de Yé’hidah, dont la connexion avec Dieu ne peut en aucun cas être affectée.

« Yom Kippour » signifie « Jour de l’Expiation. » C’est le jour de fête le plus Saint de la Torah : « Le dixième jour du septième mois, sera pour vous Journée des expiations (Lévitique 23:27). Yom Kippour est observé en s’abstenant de travailler, et en s’affligeant par le jeûne.

Le jour de Roch Hachana, le livre de la vie est écrit. À Yom Kippour, il est scellé. Le jour de Yom Kippour constitue le 10° jour des dix jours de pénitence, le point culminant de dix jours consécutifs d’introspection et de développement personnel. En ce jour, nous parachevons la Téchouva (repentance) que nous avons commencée au mois hébraïque d’Eloul, et par laquelle nous manifestons des regrets pour les méfaits accomplis pendant l’année écoulée, et prenons la résolution de nous améliorer l’année prochaine.

Bien que Yom Kippour soit un jour sombre, il constitue également un jour de joie. Imaginez que vous venez d’avoir un accident avec la voiture de votre chef et que ce dernier vous convoque dans son bureau. Vous savez qu’il est une personne sensible et généreuse. Vous redoutez la rencontre mais vous êtes convaincu qu’il vous pardonnera, comme il l’a toujours fait. Il s’agit là de la « Yom Kippour attitude ». Nous appréhendons le Jugement de Dieu, mais nous sommes convaincus qu’il nous accordera une autre année, une autre chance ! Nous sommes confiants en Son Pardon, et rien ne pourrait nous rendre plus heureux.

 

À l’époque du Temple, il y avait une dimension qui n’existe plus de nos jours : le Grand prêtre, l’homme le plus saint du peuple juif, entrait au moment de la prière de moussaf dans le Saint des Saints, là où aucun homme n’a le droit d’entrer et dans lequel aucun sacrifice n’est fait durant l’année.

Le matin, on présentait devant le Grand prêtre deux béliers totalement identiques et on procédait à un tirage au sort. L’un deux était destiné à être jeté du haut d’une falaise hors de Jérusalem. L’autre était présenté en sacrifice dans le Saint des Saints, là où se trouvait le tabernacle qui renfermait les tables de la loi.

C’est par ce cérémonial que le pardon des fautes de tout le peuple juif était concrétisé. Ce moment était donc crucial.

Le point de départ est la ressemblance entre les deux béliers qui finalement connaissent un destin diamétralement opposé.

Au moment où le bélier va être envoyé dans le désert, il provoque l’envie de celui qui reste dans le Temple car il ignore sa vraie destination et jalouse sa « liberté ». Il a l’impression qu’il va pouvoir vivre en toute liberté alors qu’en fait, il finira au fond de la falaise.

Imaginons deux frères jumeaux : le premier s’investit sérieusement dans ses études et nourrit de hautes ambitions. L’autre préfère profiter de la vie et vit le moment présent, insouciant. À l’image des deux béliers, il peut arriver au premier d’envier le second pour sa « liberté ». Cette dualité existe en fait en chacun de nous.

fin du jeun de kippour
personnes célébrant la fin de Kippour devant le coucher de soleil

 

les 5 lois du jour de Kippour

  1. Ce jour est frappé des mêmes interdits que le Chabbathet il faudra allumer les bougies comme à l’entrée du Chabbath, mais en récitant la bénédiction suivante :Baroukh ata Ado-naï, élohénou mélèkh haolam, achère kidéchanou béMitsvotave vétsivanou, léhadlik nère chèle (si Kippour tombe un Chabbath, on rajoute : Chabbath vé) Yom hakippourim.2. Au cours de ce jour saint, il est possible d’arriver à un pardon des fautes et à une grande réparation de l’âme, si l’on se repent sincèrement. Durant ce jour, le mauvais penchant est affaibli, et il faut donc en profiter pour se renforcer et prendre de bonnes résolutions. Les deux principales Mitsvot de ce saint jour sont le jeûne et la Téchouva (le repentir).3. Le jeûne de Kippour commence quelques minutes avant le coucher du soleil. Il se termine le lendemain soir, quelques minutes après la tombée de la nuit. On demandera l’horaire exact à un Rav ou on se référera à un calendrier juif détaillé.

    4. Durant ce jeûne, il sera interdit de manger, de boire, de chausser des chaussures en cuir et de se laver. Les ablutions des mains au réveil et en sortant des toilettes se feront sur les doigts uniquement. Les relations conjugales seront également interdites.

    Comme tous les jeûnes, le détachement des profits matériels a pour but de nous faciliter laTéchouva et nous permettre de nous renforcer dans notre Service Divin.

    5. Le jour de Kippour pardonne les fautes, à condition que l’on fasse Téchouva.

    Si durant toute l’année, chaque instant de Téchouva a une force et un impact des plus puissants, le jour de Kippour, les réparations effectuées par le repentir sont encore plus grandes ! Il faut donc multiplier les prières pour le pardon des fautes et se renforcer dans la Crainte du Ciel. Aussi, on étudiera des textes du Moussar afin d’intensifier l’amour des Mitsvot.

 

 

 

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