Bar-Mitsva

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Tout sur la Bar-Mitsva… dans la joie !

La Michna dans Pirké Avot (5,21) nous révèle qu’à cinq ans, on enseigne à un jeune enfant la Torah écrite, à dix ans la Michna (qui fait partie de la Torah orale) et enfin qu’à treize ans l’enfant est astreint à accomplir les Mitsvot de la Torah. Cela signifie qu’avant l’âge de treize ans et un jour, le jeune garçon n’a pas d’obligation d’accomplir les Mitsvot.

Bien entendu, cela ne signifie pas qu’il n’existe pas d’obligation pour les parents d’enseigner la Torah à leurs enfants. Au contraire, cette obligation est très clairement mentionnée dans la Torah orale comme on vient de le voir dans l’introduction. D’autre part, cette obligation est aussi mentionnée dans la Torah écrite, comme l’explique le Ramban (Rabbi Moché Ben Na’hman). Dans Dévarim 6,7, il est écrit :
« Véchinantam Lévanékha » (« Tu l’enseigneras à tes enfants »). Il est écrit également dans Vayikra 3,17 : « Une loi éternelle pour vos générations ». Le Ramban déduit de là que nous avons l’obligation de faire en sorte que nos enfants connaissent les Mitsvot, ce qui implique évidemment que nous les leur enseignions.

Mais ce n’est pas tout. Il est écrit également dans Dévarim 11,19 : « Vélimadetem Otam Et Bénékhem »
(« Vous les enseignerez à vos fils »). On pourrait se demander à juste titre quelle est la différence entre le premier enseignement de Dévarim « Véchinantam » et le second « Vélimadetem »… Le Ramban nous enseigne que « Véchinantam » enjoint au père de raconter à son fils les Mitsvot de manière imagée et agréable, un peu comme cela se pratique dans les classes de Gan (école maternelle juive).
« Vélimladetem », par contre, désigne un enseignement bien plus poussé, où l’on demande au père de faire en sorte que son fils étudie les Mitsvot avec précision, au point d’en connaître les détails et d’en comprendre les raisons. Il apparaît donc ici clairement que « Véchinantam » se rapporte au premier âge et que « Vélimadetem » se rapporte à un âge ultérieur où la maturité intellectuelle de l’enfant lui permet d’aborder l’étude des Mitsvot sous un angle bien plus approfondi.
La Torah nous donne ici une leçon de pédagogie que l’on peut faire déborder du cadre strict de l’éducation, à savoir être toujours capable d’adapter l’enseignement que l’on souhaite délivrer à l’entendement de notre auditeur.

Quand fête-t-on la Bar-Mitsva ?

D’après Tossfot Yom Tov et le Mahari Brouna, le jour de la Bar Mitsva
est le jour de la naissance auquel on ajoute vingt-quatre heures. Bien
entendu, lorsqu’on parle du jour de la naissance, on ne parle que du
jour de la naissance tel qu’il est défini dans le calendrier juif. En effet,
toute autre numérotation calendaire n’a aucune valeur aux yeux de la
Torah.

Le jeune garçon voit son statut radicalement changer et est considéré comme un juif adulte, soumis désormais à l’obligation des Mitsvot. La première Mitsva à laquelle il est confronté est celle du Kiriat Chéma du soir (lecture du Chéma Israël et de ses trois paragraphes). Cette Mitsva est fondamentale, puisque la première phrase du Chéma Israël ainsi que les trois paragraphes qui la suivent contiennent les vérités essentielles du judaïsme.

La première phrase « Chéma Israël, Hachem Elokénou, Hachem E’had » nous enseigne le principe de l’unicité de D… Cette première phrase est suivie du premier paragraphe commençant par « Véahavta », dans lequel apparaissent un certain nombre d’injonctions de la Torah, au nombre desquelles celle d’aimer Hachem de toutes de ses forces, la nécessité de considérer les paroles de la Torah chaque jour avec un oeil nouveau, comme si on venait de les recevoir aujourd’hui même ; l’obligation d’enseigner la Torah à ses enfants et l’impératif absolu de l’étude de la Torah dans toutes les configurations possibles ; enfin le premier paragraphe se termine sur la Mitsva des Téfilin.
Le second paragraphe commence par la promesse de l’abondance suite au respect intégral des commandements de la Torah, suivie par une sévère mise en garde contre l’idolâtrie ; en effet, Hachem nous avertit que si nous nous laissons aller à l’idolâtrie, la conséquence en sera la sècheresse et la disette ainsi que l’exil hors de la bonne terre d’Israël ; ensuite est mentionné l’impératif de l’étude de la Torah, directement suivi de la Mitsva des Téfilin.

En effet, les boîtiers des Téfilin, aussi bien celui de la tête que celui du bras, contiennent des paroles de la Torah. Lorsque nous mettons les Téfilin, nous attachons littéralement les paroles de la Torah sur notre corps. Pourquoi la Mitsva d’étudier la Torah est-elle immédiatement suivie par la Mitsva des Téfilin ? Parce que mettre les Téfilin n’a véritablement de sens aux yeux de la Torah que si on étudie également la Torah.
Ainsi, il existe une Mitsva d’étudier la Torah, Mitsva que l’on réalise avec son intellect. Dans un second temps, il existe une Mitsva d’attacher sur son corps les paroles de la Torah. Comment puis-je réaliser cela ? Tout simplement en mettant les Téfilin.

Dans la suite du second paragraphe revient l’impératif de l’enseignement de la Torah à nos enfants dans toutes les situations (à la maison, en chemin, au coucher, au lever) comme il est mentionné dans le premier paragraphe. Ensuite apparaît la Mitsva de la Mézouza, qui nous rappelle la présence d’Hachem et sa protection permanente. Le respect scrupuleux de la Mitsva de la Mézouza nous permettra de bénéficier d’une longue vie, promesse qui s’étend également à nos enfants, sur la terre d’Israël que nous avons reçue par le mérite de nos Patriarches, Avraham, Yits’hak et Ya’acov.

Le troisième paragraphe commence par la Mitsva des Tsitsit, franges rituelles que nous devons porter à l’extrémité de nos vêtements à quatre coins. Nous ne portons plus aujourd’hui de vêtements à quatre coins. En effet, la plupart de nos vêtements sont cousus d’un seul ensemble. C’est pourquoi, si nous souhaitons accomplir cette Mitsva, nous devons mettre un vêtement spécial, le Talit Katan (petit Talit), qui comporte effectivement quatre coins, auxquels sont attachés des Tsitsit. Le but de cette Mitsva est qu’au spectacle de ces Tsitsit, nous nous rappelions toutes les Mitsvot de la Torah pour les accomplir et que nous ne nous laissions pas égarer par des visions interdites qui nous feraient dévier du chemin de la moralité et de la pudeur.

Cette Mitsva nous permettra d’accéder à la sainteté. En effet, Hachem nous a fait sortir d’Égypte, pays où l’immoralité était à son comble, pour faire de nous un peuple saint, entièrement détaché de toutes les pratiques immorales et des conduites débauchées, auxquelles le séjour dans le pays d’Égypte nous a confrontés.

La pose des Téfilin

Il est bon de commencer à habituer le jeune impétrant à mettre les Téfilin un an ou deux avant sa Bar Mitsva ; ceci n’étant valable que pour les Séfarades. Quant aux Achkénazes, certains d’entre eux ont l’habitude d’habituer leur enfant à mettre les Téfilin deux mois avant la Bar Mitsva. Il faudra également habituer le jeune homme à prononcer correctement les bénédictions afférentes aux Téfilin. En effet, dès qu’il entre dans sa quatorzième année, c’est-à-dire treize ans et un jour, il a l’obligation de mettre les Téfilin Min Hatorah (Il existe deux types d’obligations religieuses : celles qui nous sont ordonnées directement par la Torah [Min Hatorah] et celles qui nous sont ordonnées par les Sages [Mi Dérabanan]). Même si ne se sont pas écoulées vingt-quatre heures depuis l’heure anniversaire de sa naissance, il est tout de même soumis à l’obligation d’accomplir toutes les Mitsvot de la Torah. Donnons un exemple concret. Supposons qu’un enfant soit né le 6 Sivan 5652 à 16 heures. Treize ans plus tard, le 6 Sivan 5665 à 16 heures, il n’est pas encore astreint aux Mitsvot. Mais dès que tombe la nuit et qu’on entre dans le 7 Sivan (sachant que dans le calendrier juif, le jour commence la veille au soir), il est astreint aux Mitsvot. Par tombée de la nuit, on entend ici sortie des étoiles.

Téfilin

Le jeune Bar Mitsva devra mettre aussi le Talit Gadol (grand Talit) et sera astreint à cette Mitsva quotidiennement. Ceci n’est vrai que pour les Séfarades. Les Achkénazes, pour certains d’entre eux, ne mettent le Talit Gadol quotidiennement qu’une fois mariés. Le Michna Beroura, un des plus grands décisionnaires achkénazes, s’élève vigoureusement contre le fait que certaines communautés achkénazes ne prescrivent le port du Talit Gadol qu’aux jeunes déjà mariés, arguant du fait qu’il n’y a aucune raison valable de priver ces jeunes de l’accomplissement d’une Mitsva si importante.

Talit

La cérémonie

La pose des Téfilin se fait lundi ou jeudi. Le jeune Bar Mitsva monte également à la Torah et peut éventuellement prononcer une Dracha (dissertation à thématique variée pouvant porter sur des sujets talmudiques, bibliques ou halakhiques), où il démontrera sa maîtrise et ses connaissances.
Le Chabat suivant sera appelé Chabat ‘Hatan, au sens ou le jeune homme est considéré comme ‘Hatan Habarmitsva, c’est-à-dire le principal héros de la fête. Le jeune Bar Mitsva montera également à la Torah, cette fois-ci pour y lire obligatoirement au moins le Maftir (trois derniers versets de la Paracha) suivi de la Haftara (passage des Prophètes que l’on lit après la lecture cantilée de la Paracha), ou bien même s’il en a les capacités et s’il s’y est préparé sérieusement, la totalité de la Paracha.
Ceci demande une préparation conséquente, puisque le texte de la Torah n’est pas vocalisé (ne comporte pas de voyelles) et ne contient pas non plus de cantillation visible (pas de notes de musique). Cependant, sa lecture en public impose de connaître par coeur à la fois les voyelles et les Té’amim (notes de musique).

Il est de coutume dans le peuple juif de fêter l’accomplissement d’une Mitsva par une Sé’ouda (repas). Il est donc souhaitable d’organiser une légère collation à la fin de la Téfila, celle-ci ne constituant pas le repas à proprement parler de Chabat midi. Certains organisent un séjour à l’hôtel pour la durée du Chabat. Dans le cadre de ce séjour et lors des Sé’oudot (pluriel de Sé’ouda), il est bon de veiller à ce que le jeune Bar Mitsva préside au Zimoun (invitation à la récitation du Birkat Hamazon), puisque désormais il est astreint aux Mitsvot comme n’importe quel adulte juif.

Bar-mitsva dans la joie !

Il est assez fréquent que les parents du jeune Bar Mitsva décident d’offrir à leur fils une soirée festive agrémentée d’un repas et de danses. Il faut savoir que c’est une habitude assez moderne, puisque dans l’ancien temps, les gens se contentaient souvent d’une simple cérémonie à la synagogue, où la pose des Téfilin occupait la place principale, éventuellement suivie d’une modeste collation.
Il y a un certain nombre d’erreurs à ne pas commettre.
Certaines personnes considèrent à tort la Bar Mitsva comme un rite d’initiation, une sorte de passage à l’âge adulte et décident de ce fait de mettre en place pendant la soirée de la Bar Mitsva un ensemble de prestations non conformes à la décence (danseuses orientales ou autres), destinées à pousser le jeune Bar Mitsva vers une affectivité débridée et un débordement émotionnel qui ne peuvent que le déstabiliser.

L’éducation conforme à la Torah vise au contraire à préserver la pureté d’âme dont est doté naturellement chaque Ben Israël (enfant du peuple juif ). La Bar Mitsva, bien loin de constituer un rite initiatique d’inspiration douteuse, est au contraire le couronnement d’une éducation aux Mitsvot depuis la tendre enfance, éclairée jour après jour par la lumière de l’étude de la Torah… L’enfant, puis le jeune adolescent s’habitue progressivement à une vie conforme à la Torah et c’est ainsi qu’à treize ans, il est prêt à prendre sur lui le joug des Mitsvot, sachant que seul ce joug fera de lui dans un avenir plus où moins proche, un homme libre.

En effet, nos sages enseignent qu’il n’est d’homme libre que celui qui s’affaire à l’étude de la Torah (Pirké Avot 6,2). Seule l’étude de la Torah accompagnée de l’accomplissement des Mitsvot a le pouvoir de libérer l’homme de l’emprise des désirs et des passions qui menacent de détruire sa vie et son équilibre mental et physique.
Hachem a dit : « j’ai créé le Yetser Hara (forces négatives) et j’ai créé la Torah comme antidote à ce Yetser Hara » (Kidouchin 30b). Il n’existe aucun autre moyen pour un être humain d’échapper à l’emprise des forces négatives si ce n’est d’étudier et d’accomplir la Torah et les Mitsvot.

Le jeune Bar Mitsva, porté par une éducation conforme aux valeurs de la Torah, sera à même de se consacrer avec une conscience nouvelle à l’étude de la Torah. Ses parents ont donc l’obligation sacrée de faire en sorte que le jour de sa Bar Mitsva soit un jour rempli de sainteté et qui le pousse à devenir un juif véritablement accompli.

Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire d’éviter certains écueils, particulièrement lors de la soirée de la Bar Mitsva. On devra éviter la mixité et permettre aux hommes et aux femmes de s’asseoir séparément de sorte à ce que la joie qui règne soit une joie pure, comme nous l’avons expliqué dans le texte « Mariage séparé, pourquoi la Torah y tient ? ». À tout le moins, les danses devront être séparées, puisqu’il est strictement interdit aux hommes de regarder des femmes danser.

Toutes ces précautions permettront au jeune Bar Mitsva et à sa famille de s’éloigner de ces ambiances frivoles qu’on s’imagine à tort compatibles avec le jour de la Bar Mitsva. Ce grand jour va sceller l’alliance avec les Miitsvot, d’où l’appellation de Bar Mitsva qui signifie littéralement fils de la Mitsva, voulant signifier par là le caractère filial et indestructible qui unit le juif à l’ensemble des Mitsvot.
La Bar Mitsva vient occuper une place centrale dans la vie d’un juif au double sens du terme. Centrale puisqu’elle vient après la Brit Mila et avant le mariage. Centrale aussi puisqu’elle vient consacrer officiellement l’entrée du jeune adolescent dans la congrégation sainte.
La Brit Mila est la première alliance qu’un juif conclut avec D… sans en être conscient toutefois. Elle fait de lui véritablement un juif, l’incluant dans l’alliance d’Avraham Avinou en lui permettant l’accès futur à une vie de sainteté et de maîtrise des pulsions.

La Bar Mitsva est la seconde alliance qu’un juif conclut avec D… cette fois avec une conscience bien réelle, issue de toute une éducation conforme aux valeurs de la Torah et de la vérité.

Le mariage est la troisième alliance qu’un juif conclut avec D… puisque seul le mariage est à même de faire de lui un être complet, ainsi que le dit le verset : « Mâle et femelle Il les créa. Il les appela du nom d’Adam » (Béréchit 5,2). Or, ce n’est qu’en devenant un être complet que l’homme est à même de servir véritablement Hachem. Pour en revenir à notre sujet, la place centrale de la Bar Mitsva n’est évidemment pas fortuite, puisque ce n’est qu’après la Bar Mitsva que va se dessiner le caractère véritable du jeune adolescent, puissamment aidé par l’apparition très nette de son Yetser Hatov (penchant au bien), jusqu’alors pratiquement inexistant par rapport à son Yetser Hara (Pessikta Dé-Rav Kahana, Nispa’him 3).

Le Midrach rapporte que Ya’acov et ‘Essav étaient semblables jusqu’à l’âge de treize ans, étudiant la Torah à la même école, allant et venant d’un même pas. Puis, à treize ans, Ya’acov entra à la Yéchiva et ‘Essav se dirigea vers les temples idolâtres…

À treize ans, l’homme contenu en potentiel apparaît. C’est ce que nous voyons avec Chim’on et Lévi, que la Torah désigne du terme de « Ich » (homme), lors de leur vengeance contre la ville de Chekhem (Béréchit 34 ; 25,26). Le Midrach Tan’houma nous enseigne qu’ils avaient alors treize ans.

En conclusion, nous dirons que la Bar Mitsva est d’une part un aboutissement puisqu’elle vient couronner un parcours éducatif riche et complexe, où les parents et les enseignants ont essayé de transmettre des connaissances issues de l’immense patrimoine du judaïsme et des valeurs éthiques fidèles à l’esprit de la Torah ; et d’autre part elle représente également un nouveau départ, puisque le jeune Bar Mitsva va devoir prouver qu’il a réellement intégré les valeurs qui lui ont été inculquées pour faire face avec succès aux défis et aux épreuves que la vie ne manquera pas de lui présenter. Les meilleures armes qu’il pourra utiliser seront sa Emouna (foi en D…) et son Bita’hon (confiance en D…).

Rav Emmanuel BOUKOBZA – © Torah-Box

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