Coupe de cheveux

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A l’âge de trois ans, l’enfant devient « éducable », c’est l’age d’éducation. Pour bien marquer cela, nous commençons par lui faire la mitsva des péot, chaque juif doit laisser les cheveux dans la région de la tempe d’une longueur minimale de cinq millimètres.
Et pour pratiquer cette mitsva en y mettant plus de relief, nous laissons un peu plus que les cinq millimètres requis par la halakha, c’est une coutume que de les laisser plus longs. A cette fin, nous laissons pousser les cheveux jusqu’à l’âge de trois ans, âge auquel on coupe le reste des cheveux de la tête pour mettre en relief les péot.
La ‘Halaké (coupe de cheveux en arabe) ou Oupchérin (en yiddish) est la première coupe de cheveux effectuée, aux alentours de l’âge de 3 ans, aux jeunes garçons. La coutume veut que cette coupe de cheveux se fasse le jour de Lag Baomer, sur le tombeau de Rabbi Chimon Bar Yo’haï, à Méron.

Les origines de ce minhag sont relativement récentes et remontent à la fin du 16e siècle. Dans son responsa, le Radbaz rapporte en effet que certaines personnes font le serment de raser la tête de leur enfant sur la tombe du prophète Chmouel et de faire don du poids des cheveux en or afin que ce lieu saint soit entretenu. Le Radbaz ne cite pas de source précise et n’indique pas l’âge de l’enfant. De son côté, le rav ‘Haïm Vital, élève du Ari Hakadoch, indique dans le Chaar Hakavanot (page 87) : « La coutume veut que l’on se rende à Lag Baomer sur le tombeau de Rabbi Chimon et de son fils Rabbi Élazar, qu’on y mange, qu’on y boive et qu’on s’y réjouisse. J’ai vu mon maître, le Ari zal, se rendre là-bas à Lag Baomer avec toute sa famille et y rester trois jours. Rabbi Yonathan Saguich m’a affirmé (on ignore s’il s’agit du Ari ou du rav Saguich – ndlr) qu’il y avait conduit son jeune garçon, à qui on avait rasé les cheveux selon la célèbre coutume et avant d’organiser un festin. J’écris tout cela pour prouver que cette coutume a des racines profondes… ».
Comme on le voit, là aussi, l’âge de l’enfant n’est pas indiqué. On retrouve mention de la ‘Halaké dans les livres des sages séfarades comme le responsa Guinat Vradim, le livre Ne’hpa Békessef du rav Yona Navon, le Mizbé’ah Adama, le Michnat ‘hassidim, le Sdé ‘Hémed…
Chez les Ashkénazes cependant, cette coutume n’est mentionnée nulle part parmi les Richonim et les A’haronim. Toutefois, les ‘Hassidim d’Eretz Israël l’ont adoptée à partir de la troisième génération après le Baal Chem Tov, soit aux alentours de l’année 5600 (1840 de l’ère vulgaire). Cette première coupe de cheveux, qui se déroule en général vers l’âge de 3 ans, est en fait une espèce de cérémonie d’intronisation du jeune enfant dans le monde des hommes. Jusqu’à 3 ans, en effet, l’enfant se trouve majoritairement entouré de femmes, que ce soit sa mère ou sa nourrice et, arrivé à l’âge de 3 ans, il va faire son entrée au Talmud Torah et entamer son parcours dans le monde de l’étude. Ce changement extérieur que constitue la coupe de cheveux permet aux parents de faire « passer ce message » à l’enfant : à partir de maintenant, il ressemble en effet à son père et à ses rabbanim. Pour certaines communautés, c’est la conservation des péot (papillotes) qui occupe la place centrale de ce minhag, bien plus que la coupe de cheveux elle même. Cette mitsva des péot est indiquée dans le livre de Vayikra
(19, 27) : « Ne taillez pas les extrémités de votre chevelure, et ne rase pas
les coins de ta barbe ».

Enfin, pour certains, cette coutume est une sorte de lien tissé entre l’homme et la nature. Tout comme les fruits d’un arbre ne peuvent être consommés durant les trois premières années suivant sa plantation (mitsva de Orla), il est selon eux interdit de couper les « fruits » / cheveux de l’enfant durant ses trois premières années. La proximité des versets traitant de la Orla et ceux interdisant de tailler les Péot est sans doute la cause de ce parallèle. C’est donc en référence au texte de Rabbi ‘Haïm Vital indiquant que cette coutume a été adoptée par son maître le Ari zal, commentateur du Zohar, que depuis de nombreuses années déjà, des centaines de personnes organisent la ‘Halaké de leur enfant le jour de la Hilloula de Rabbi Chimon Bar Yo’haï, rédacteur du Zohar. Au début de la cérémonie, le père récite des prières avant de laisser généralement un rav couper la première mèche de cheveux située à l’avant de la tête, à l’endroit où plus tard, l’enfant devenu Bar-Mitsva portera ses Téfilin. Ensuite, chacune des personnes présentes coupe une mèche de cheveux et bénit l’enfant afin qu’il grandisse dans la Torah et les mitsvot. Certains ont l’habitude d’enseigner à l’enfant un verset ou encore les lettres de l’Aleph Beth qu’il récitera durant la cérémonie. Enfin, d’autres profitent de l’occasion pour revêtir l’enfant de son premier Talit katan et lui faire réciter la bénédiction de Chéhé’héyanou.

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