Dix jours de pénitence


D’un côté, il est écrit (Yecha’ya 55,6): « Recherchez l’Eternel quand Il se trouve (là), appelez-Le lorsqu’Il est proche », laissant entendre que le Saint béni soit-Il est proche à certaines périodes et éloigné à d’autres moments. D’un autre côté, il est dit (Devarim 4,7): « Qui est comme l’Eternel notre D.ieu… proche chaque fois que nous L’appelons. » Relevant la contradiction apparente entre ces deux versets, le Talmud (Roch Hachana 18a) répond: le Saint béni soit-Il est toujours proche quand la collectivité prie et se repent. Mais durant les dix jours de pénitence, Il est proche même d’un seul repenti. Dans Sa grande miséricorde, l’Eternel a fixé des jours spéciaux où il est plus proche de nous que le reste de l’année pour agréer notre repentir.

Rambam (Hilkhot Techouva 2,6) écrit: « Même si le repentir et le cri sont toujours bons, ils sont encore meilleurs pendant les dix jours de Roch Hachana à Yom Kipour et ils sont agréés immédiatement », comme il est dit: « Recherchez l’Eternel pendant qu’Il est proche ». Tout cela est vrai pour un particulier. Mais la collectivité est toujours exaucée chaque fois qu’elle se repent et se lamente sincèrement, car il est dit: «Qui est comme l’Eternel notre D.ieu… proche chaque fois que nous L’appelons. »

Il ajoute (ibid. 3,4): « C’est pourquoi chacun doit faire, tout au long de l’an-née, comme si lui-même et le monde entier avaient autant de mérites que de fautes. S’il commet une faute supplémentaire, il amène sur lui-même et sur le monde entier une décision défavorable et sème la destruction. S’il accomplit une mitsva, il amène sur lui-même et sur le monde entier une décision favorable et apporte à lui-même et aux autres le salut et la délivrance. Un seul acte peut faire pencher la balance du bon ou du mauvais côté.

En effet, il est écrit (Michlè 10,25) : «Le juste est le fondement du monde.» Autrement dit, celui qui s’est conduit en juste amène une décision favorable sur le monde entier et le sauve, comme s’il était le fondement sur lequel le monde repose.
Pour cette raison, l’ensemble de la Maison d’Israël a l’habitude de multiplier les dons charitables et les bonnes actions et de s’appliquer aux commandements, de Roch Hachana à Yom Kipour, encore plus que le reste de l’année.
Suivant un usage répandu dans toutes les communautés, on a l’habitude de se lever la nuit, durant cette dizaine de jours, pour réciter à la synagogue des paroles de supplication et d’admonestation jusqu’à ce qu’il fasse jour.

Les fautes de l’homme envers son prochain sont pardonnées le jour de Kippour, uniquement si l’on demande pardon à la personne concernée. C’est pourquoi, si on a volé une tierce personne la restriction de l’objet ne sera pas suffisante, il faudra demander, en plus, Mé’hila à la victime. De même si l’on a vexé par des paroles ou à plus forte raison si on a fait rougir en public une personne, on aura l’obligation de demander Me’hila. Rabbi Yosseph Haim de Bagdad (Ben Ich Haï) recommande fermement à chacun de demander Me’hila à son père et sa mère car, en général, on pense plus à s’incliner devant une personne étrangère tandis que les parents que l’on côtoie chaque jour, il est pratiquement impossible de leur manquer de respect, par conséquent, des excuses sincères s’imposent. Rabbi Haim Vital a rapporté au nom de son illustre maître, le Ari Hakadoch que les 7 jours qui séparent Roch Hachana de Kippour, représentent les 7 jours de la semaine et que chaque jour, on devait penser réparer les fautes que l’on aurait pu commettre dans l’année ce même jour : Par exemple nous sommes aujourd’hui Mardi : on doit penser réparer, toutes les imperfections effectuées habituellement le Mardi. Le Rambam décrit, combien est grande le Techouva, elle permet de hisser l’homme jusqu’à la Chekhina. Hier, il était détesté par Hachem, aujourd’hui il est aimé, agréable et apprécié et l’« ami » du créateur. Le Baal Techouva est considéré par hachem, comme s’il n’avait jamais fauté. Il est d’ailleurs au dessus du Tsaddik qui n’a jamais fauté car il a goûté maintes fois à la faute, et maintenant il s’en écarte. Car il maîtrise son Yetser Hara = mauvais penchant. Revenons tous vers Hachem, Car Sa main est tendue pour accueillir les « Baal Techouva » (repentants).

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