Seder de Pessah

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Table Set for Seder Israel

Pendant Pessa’h

 

LE SOIR DU SEDER

Pessa’h commence par la célébration d’un Seder détaillé durant les deux premiers soirs (uniquement le 1er soir en Israël). Le but du Seder est de faire revivre à chaque juif l’expérience de « quitter l’esclavage pour la liberté ». Nous racontons l’histoire de la sortie d’Egypte et celle des 10 plaies, telle qu’elle est écrite dans la Haggadah. Nous mangeons des aliments symboles de l’esclavage et d’autres symboles de la liberté. Le repas de fête est établi à l’aide de recettes délicieuses et tous l’attendent impatiemment d’année en année (il suffit de penser aux boulettes de farine de Matza ). Nous récitons la prière du Hallel et concluons le Seder en proclamant « L’an prochain à Jérusalem ! »

Le Seder unit d’un lien spécial toute la famille. Il est d’ailleurs accordé ce soir-là aux enfants une attention particulière. Ils participent activement au déroulement de la soirée. Ils chantonnent les Quatre Questions (Ma Nishtana) et Dayenou, lisent la partie consacrée aux Quatre Fils, tentent de dérober l’Afikoman et ouvrent la porte pour accueillir le prophète Eliyahou.

LISTE POUR LE SEDER – Le Seder signifie « ordre » du fait de l’abondance de détails à se rappeler. Il doit comprendre:

  • Un plateau de Seder dans lequel se trouvent:
    • Céleri, persil ou pomme de terre (Karpas)
    • Laitue (Maror)
    • Raifort (Chazeret)
    • Charoset
    • Une aile de poulet ou du mouton rôti (Zero’ah)
    • Un oeuf dur (Beitzah)
    • 3 Matzot
  • Un tissu recouvrant les 3 Matzot (prévoir une Matza supplémentaire)
  • Vin et Jus de raisin
  • Haggadot
  • Coupe d’Eliyahou
  • Eau salée
  • Verres de Kiddoush
  • Coussins sur lesquels s’accouder
  • Récompenses pour les enfants pour avoir trouvé l’Afikoman

Pourquoi manger ces aliments ?

MATZA – Manger la Matza le soir du Seder est une grande Mitzvah. Elle en est le symbole essentiel. Chacun devrait essayer de manger 2/3 de Matza carrée ou ½ Matza ronde, en 4 minutes, accoudé sur le côté gauche. La raison principale est de nous rappeler qu’au matin de la libération, nous étions dans une telle hâte de quitter l’Egypte que nous sommes partis sans que notre pain n’ait eu le temps de lever. A la fin du repas, un « dessert » spécial est servi, un autre morceau de Matza appelée Afikoman.

QUATRE VERRES – Durant le Seder, nous buvons quatre verres de vin – correspondant aux quatre expressions utilisées pour décrire notre liberté dans la Torah (Exode 6:6-7). Chacun devrait avoir son propre verre, contenant au minimum 86 ml. Il faut essayer de vider entièrement son verre à chaque fois ou du moins en boire un maximum en 4 minutes. Pour exprimer notre sentiment de liberté, nous nous adossons en arrière, accoudés sur le côté gauche, pour boire nos quatre Verres.

KARPAS – Nous mangeons le KARPAS au début du Seder, un légume (céleri, persil ou pomme de terre) trempé dans de l’eau salée pour commémorer nos larmes durant le travail forcé.

MAROR – Nous mangeons ensuite le MAROR, les herbes amères. Selon leur coutume, certains utilisent le Raifort ou de la salade Romaine. (A noter que le Raifort en bocal ne devrait pas être utilisé car il est très souvent mélangé aux betteraves). Le Maror est trempé dans la CHAROSET, mélange de noix, dattes, pommes et vin, symbole de brique et de mortier.

CHAZERET – Nous mangeons aussi le Maror en le plaçant entre deux Matzot selon l’enseignement de Hillel.

ZERO’AH – Dans le plateau du Seder, un morceau de mouton ou une aile ou cou de poulet selon les coutumes, rappelle le sacrifice d’un agneau que D.ieu nous avaient ordonnés de consommer la veille de notre départ. Le mot Zero’ah en hébreu signifie « bras », symbolisant le bras puissant de D.ieu qui nous fit sortir d’Egypte.

BEITZAH – Egalement présent dans le plateau du Seder, un œuf dur qui représente les sacrifices du Temple effectués lors de Pessa’h, Shavout et Soukkot.

 

 

Pour aller plus loin : Un regard sur la portée kabbalistique des différents aliments réunis sur la table du Seder.

 

Les aliments présents sur table du Seder interviennent à plusieurs moments de la soirée. Selon les maîtres de la Kabbala, ils véhiculent, chacun à leur façon, un message phare de la fête de Pessa’h.

Penchons-nous sur les différents aliments mis à l’honneur le soir du Seder :

Le vin

Le vin occupe une place essentielle dans le judaïsme. Pour des événements de nature spirituelle, comme les mariages, les circoncisions, le Chabbat, le judaïsme associe une coupe de vin. Pourquoi ?

Le vin est produit à partir de la substance qui se trouve dans le raisin. Il provient d’un lieu caché et illustre l’élément caché qui doit être révélé. De même, dans ce monde matériel, la spiritualité est cachée et c’est à l’homme qu’il incombe de la révéler au grand jour.

C’est pour cette raison que la valeur numérique du terme hébraïque désignant le vin, yayin, est la même que la valeur numérique du terme hébraïque désignant le secret, sod. Le vin illustre la composante secrète du matériel, à savoir le spirituel. De ce fait, pour tout moment ou événement spirituel, le judaïsme associe le vin afin de révéler le potentiel spirituel inhérent à cet événement. Comme le Talmud l’affirme : « Lorsque le vin entre, le secret sort. »

Le karpass

Le terme karpass a un double sens. Le sens biblique de karpass est celui d’un tissu légèrement coloré. Néanmoins, à la table du Seder, nous nous sommes habitués à un autre sens du terme karpass : un légume vert.

Quel est le lien entre le karpass-tissu et le karpass-légume ? Et que vient faire le légume du karpass à la table du Seder ?

Rachi éclaircit le lien en expliquant que le manteau spécial de Joseph était composé de karpass, ce tissu légèrement coloré.

Le manteau de Joseph fut à l’origine de la descente ultime du peuple juif en Égypte. Lorsque Jacob offrit à Joseph ce manteau bien particulier, les frères de Joseph en furent jaloux. De là, les frères vendirent Joseph à des hommes, qui à leur tour le vendirent comme esclave en Égypte. D’où sa présence à la table du Seder.

L’eau salée

Le sel est unique en son genre : en soi, il est amer, mais saupoudré sur d’autres aliments, il relève leur goût et les rend plus appréciables. Cette dualité se retrouve dans l’essence de la souffrance.

En effet, il existe deux approches face à la souffrance :

La première considère la souffrance comme une épreuve dépourvue de toute finalité. Reposant sur une conception étriquée de la vie, elle se concentre exclusivement sur l’élément perturbant, en occultant sa contribution à une perspective plus large des choses. Ce qui la rend forcément amère.

À l’inverse, la seconde approche considère la souffrance comme une épreuve dotée d’une finalité certaine. Fondée sur la certitude que tout vient de D.ieu et que tout ce qui arrive dans le monde est pour le bien, elle appréhende l’épreuve comme la pièce d’un puzzle cosmique servant ultimement l’intérêt de l’homme. Vu sous cet angle, la souffrance s’en retrouve adoucie.

Les maîtres de la Kabbala remarquent que la réaction naturelle d’une personne en proie à la souffrance est de fermer les yeux. Ils expliquent que cela est dû au fait que les yeux, ces organes physiques, sont incapables d’appréhender la finalité spirituelle de la souffrance. C’est donc en fermant les yeux, en prenant du recul face à la face « visible » du monde, que l’homme peut tourner ses esprits sur la finalité de l’épreuve.

Pendant le Seder, nous trempons le karpass dans l’eau salée afin de symboliser le concept de la souffrance dotée d’une finalité ; nous considérons toute souffrance dans la vie comme un moyen de nous améliorer plutôt qu’une torture dénuée de sens. (En outre, nous trempons le karpass dans l’eau salée pour symboliser les larmes versées par le peuple juif lorsqu’il était esclave sous le règne égyptien.)

Cette dualité du sel se retrouve dans la Mer morte. En raison de son fort taux de concentration en sel, la Mer morte ne contient aucune espèce vivante, mais elle possède tout de même une faculté étonnante de guérison. En soi, la Mer morte est « amère », mais lorsque quelqu’un se trempe dans la Mer morte, il est « adouci. »

L’os à moelle

L’os à moelle n’est pas consommé pendant le Seder. C’est plutôt un rappel du sacrifice de l’agneau pascal que l’on apportait à l’époque du Temple. Le message sous-jacent de cette offrande peut se déduire de ses lois :

L’agneau pascal devait être âgé d’un an, il ne devait pas posséder d’os cassé et on devait le manger en entier dans une maison. Ces caractéristiques représentent le thème de l’unité et de l’harmonie. Et les Kabbalistes d’expliquer que l’agneau pascal est une expression de l’unité entre D.ieu et le peuple juif.

En outre, l’offrande était spécifiquement un agneau, car, d’après les Sages, le corps entier d’un agneau ressent la douleur de chaque membre – une allusion au destin partagé de chaque Juif.

La matza

On se réfère à la matza à la fois comme le pain de la liberté et le pain de misère. Quel lien peut-il exister entre ces deux notions ?

Les Kabbalistes expliquent qu’un pauvre est souvent seul et dénué de tout. Néanmoins, dans un sens, cette image de pauvreté contient un certain degré de liberté : s’il ne possède rien, il n’a donc aucun bien qui le retient. De même, nos Sages nous enseignent : « Accumuler des biens, c’est accumuler des soucis. » Ou pour reprendre un proverbe populaire : « Plus on a d’argent, plus on a de problèmes. »

Pour aller plus loin, la liberté la plus profonde à laquelle l’être peut accéder se trouve en lui-même : c’est la liberté par rapport à ses propres instincts, ses inclinations, sa nature et son éducation, lui permettant ainsi d’être réellement capable d’opérer un choix libre.

C’est là l’essence de la Matza : un aliment composé exclusivement de farine et d’eau, sans aucune adjonction ni association.

De surcroît, le Zohar, l’ouvrage essentiel de la Kabbale, désigne la matza comme « l’aliment de la foi. » En effet, contrairement au ‘‘hamets qui fermente par lui-même, la matza n’opère aucun changement en elle-même. Tout est mis en œuvre par celui qui la confectionne. Elle sort du four identique au moment où elle y est entrée. Le message de la matza est que le monde naturel ne tourne pas de lui-même. Au contraire, il est totalement dirigé par Son Créateur.

C’est également le message des miracles survenus lors de la délivrance juive de l’Égypte. Les Égyptiens crurent par erreur que le monde fonctionnait au gré des constellations et qu’aucune puissance supérieure ne tirait les ficelles. On relèvera avec intérêt que c’est la civilisation égyptienne qui inventa le pain levé, le pain qui « monte par lui-même. »

Maror – les herbes amères

Nul n’ignore que le sens du maror est de nous aider à nous identifier à l’amertume de l’esclavage égyptien. Mais reste à savoir pourquoi les juifs se trouvent-ils si souvent asservis et constamment ballotés ?

La Kabbale nous enseigne que chaque nation dispose d’un ange qui lui est préposé, un « émissaire » de D.ieu, à l’exception du peuple juif, chez qui D.ieu est « directement » au-dessus de lui.

Lorsque le peuple juif s’attache à D.ieu, il n’est absolument pas possible qu’une autre nation impose sa volonté ou son règne sur eux. Mais si le peuple juif délaisse D.ieu, il reste sans défense et tombe immanquablement sous l’âpre domination d’une autre nation.

Le ‘harosset

Les Sages nous livrent trois raisons de consommer du ‘harosset:

  1. En raison de sa consistance terreuse, le ‘harosset rappelle le mortier que les Juifs devaient travailler lorsqu’ils étaient occupés aux travaux de construction en Égypte.
  2. En Égypte, les femmes juives, qui croyaient à une délivrance imminente, séduisaient leurs maris, épuisés et frustrés par leur rude labeur, pour continuer à avoir des enfants et à perpétuer le peuple. Dans la Kabbale, le fruit de la Tapoua’h (traduit généralement comme la pomme ou le citrus) est une référence à la féminité. De ce fait, le ‘harosset composé de fruits rappelle la vertu des femmes qui affirmèrent leur féminité de cette manière digne de louanges.
  3. Le ‘harosset nous rappelle le sang : soit le sang juif versé en Égypte, soit la première des dix plaies lors de laquelle l’eau des Égyptiens fut transformée en sang.

À partir de ces différents sens du ‘harosset, il s’avère qu’il a une connotation à la fois amère et douce. C’est peut-être la raison pour laquelle le ‘harosset doux est consommé avec le maror amer ; d’un côté, le ‘harosset est un rappel d’événements amers, et d’un autre côté, il adoucit le maror amer.

L’œuf

À l’époque du Saint Temple, le peuple juif apportait une offrande festive appelée ‘haguiga. De nos jours, où le peuple juif se trouve dans un exil spirituel continu, nous plaçons au lieu de cela un œuf sur le plateau du Seder. L’œuf est associé au deuil, car en raison de sa forme ronde, il symbolise en effet le cycle de la vie. Il inspire des sentiments de peine et de réconfort, sachant que nous sommes actuellement sans le Temple et dans l’incapacité d’offrir cette offrande, mais nous espérons et prions pour nous trouver « l’an prochain, dans la Jérusalem reconstruite ! »

 

 

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