Les séminaires

159
1187

Tout le monde connaît la Yéchiva. Un concept plusieurs fois millénaire et renouvelé
régulièrement par les plus grands Maîtres du judaïsme, notamment à l’époque
moderne par Rabbi ’Haïm de Volojine, un des principaux élèves du Gaon de Vilna,
qui y a introduit le principe de l’internat. Mais qu’en est-il du séminaire ?
On ne saurait parler de séminaire sans évoquer le contexte qui a vu apparaître le
premier séminaire, ou de son nom juif, Beth Ya’acov. A partir de 1800, le judaïsme
européen connaît les affres de l’assimilation. En effet, la Haskala, mouvement dit
des « Lumières juives » qui fait écho au mouvement des « Lumières » chez les non-
juifs commence à faire des ravages. La sortie du ghetto et l’accès aux
connaissances profanes s’avèrent être un piège mortel pour nombre de nos
coreligionnaires qui succombent aux charmes factices de la modernité. Des
centaines de milliers de juifs quittent les rangs du judaïsme et parfois même vont
jusqu’à se convertir au christianisme… L’école obligatoire pour tous amène les
jeunes filles juives en Pologne et en Galicie à fréquenter l’école publique et à se
trouver mêlées à la population non-juive. Ceci amène un certain nombre de jeunes
filles à ressentir une attirance pour la culture polonaise chrétienne et même parfois à
quitter le giron du judaïsme.
C’est là qu’intervient Sarah Schenirer, née en 1883 à Cracovie en Pologne dans une
famille orthodoxe affiliée à la ‘hassidout Belz. Faute de mieux, elle fréquente l’école
publique et se distingue par ses excellents résultats. Passionnée par la Torah, elle
se plonge avec délectation dans l’étude des ouvrages en Yiddish pour femmes
« Tséna oureéna » ou « Na’halat tsvi ». Après avoir terminé avec brio le cycle de ses
études, elle apprend le métier de couturière où elle se fait rapidement une bonne
réputation.
Suite au déclenchement de la première guerre mondiale, elle se réfugie à Vienne
avec sa famille. C’est là qu’elle assiste pour la première fois aux cours du Rav
Moché Flesch, lui-même élève de Rav Chimchon Rafaël Hirsh. Elle y entend
une dracha enflammée sur la grandeur d’âme de Yéhoudit, une héroïne juive et une
grande tsadékète qui sauva le peuple juif des mains du roi grec Elifroni l’impie qui
était venu faire le siège de Jérusalem ; Yéhoudit s’introduisit en effet dans le camp
ennemi, s’arrangea pour être présentée au roi et après bien des péripéties réussit à
le faire boire et lui trancha la tête. Très impressionnée par le dévouement de cette
femme exceptionnelle, Sarah Schnierer décida elle aussi de se consacrer au
sauvetage du peuple juif, par le biais de l’enseignement de la Torah aux jeunes filles
d’Israël.
La position de Sarah Schenirer est tout à fait novatrice. Aussi loin qu’on remonte
dans l’histoire du peuple juif, l’éducation des jeunes filles s’est toujours faite à la
maison. En effet, la mère enseignait à la jeune fille les fondements du judaïsme et la
transmission se faisait de manière quasi-parfaite. Preuve en est la fidélité sans faille
du peuple juif à la Torah tout au long des siècles. D’ailleurs la halakha tranchait sans
ambiguïté qu’une femme n’avait pas l’obligation d’étudier la Torah (Rambam,
Michné Torah, halakhot Talmoud Torah, chapitre 1, halakha 13). Cependant Rabbi
Yéhouda Ha’hassid, dans le Séfer ‘hassidim (12ème siècle) explique qu’un père a
malgré tout l’obligation d’enseigner à ses filles les mitsvot de la Torah comme le
Chabbat afin qu’elle ne le transgresse pas.
Jusqu’à l’apparition de Sarah Schnierer sur la scène publique, il n’existait donc
aucune institution juive qui s’occupait d’enseigner la Torah aux filles. Aussi une telle
innovation qui allait déclencher dans le peuple juif une véritable révolution
demandait l’approbation des plus grands Sages de la Torah contemporains. C’est
chose faite en 1918, année où Sarah Schenirer ouvre la première école pour les
petites filles juives, Beth Ya’acov, dans sa propre maison avec sept élèves qui
étudiaient à l’école publique le matin puis qui venaient l’après-midi chez Sarah
Schnierer.
L’Admour de Belz, Rabbi Yissakhar Dov, l’Admour de Gour et le ‘Hafets ‘Hayim
donnèrent leur approbation au projet de Sarah Schnierer. Le ‘Hafets ‘Hayim, dans
son livre « Likouté halakhot » sur le traité Sota, explique que l’habitude de ne pas
enseigner la Torah aux filles se justifiait dans les générations précédentes où la
transmission du savoir s’effectuait dans le cadre familial. Mais aujourd’hui, suite
aux bouleversements de l’époque moderne et à l’éclatement de nombreuses
communautés ainsi que du fait de l’accession à l’éducation laïque de nombreuses
jeunes filles juives, il est nécessaire d’enseigner à ces jeunes filles le Tanakh ainsi
que les livres de moussarpour éviter qu’elles ne sortent du droit chemin.
Cette idée fit son chemin. Et c’est ainsi qu’en 1935 en Pologne, il y avait 250 écoles
du Beth Ya’acov qui regroupaient 35 000 élèves. Qu’en est-il aujourd’hui ? Le
concept de l’éducation juive pour filles s’est largement répandu et a sauvé le
judaïsme mondial de la disparition. L’action de Sarah Schnierer et son dévouement
exceptionnel à l’éducation des jeunes filles juives ont changé le cours de l’histoire
juive.
Mais pourquoi aujourd’hui une jeune fille juive devrait-elle aller en séminaire ? Si elle
n’a pas suivi de scolarité en école juive, la réponse semble évidente : on ne peut
envisager de fonder un foyer juif sans un minimum de connaissances des lois
juives, de l’éthique juive et d’une manière générale du formidable patrimoine
spirituel qui appartient au peuple juif. Par contre, si une jeune fille a déjà suivi une
scolarité en école juive, la question se pose différemment. Cependant, quelque soit
le niveau de l’école juive, le cursus suivi a en général comporté des matières
profanes. Or dans les séminaires contemporains, le cursus d’études comprend une
année d’études entièrement kodesh.
Cette immersion dans la Torah pendant une période d’un an permet de se
déconnecter du monde profane et de se préparer de la meilleure manière possible à
son futur rôle d’épouse et de mère dans le peuple juif. Par ailleurs, le fait de ne plus
habiter chez ses parents et de vivre en internat pendant une année permet en
quelque sorte de couper le « cordon ombilical » et de se préparer à une vie
indépendante dans le cadre du mariage.
En conclusion, s’offrir une année de séminaire, aujourd’hui, pour une jeune fille ne
relève pas du luxe mais constitue un investissement indispensable dans son propre
avenir ; apprendre à distinguer l’accessoire de l’essentiel, comprendre le but de sa
venue sur terre, se construire pour pouvoir à son tour construire et surtout ne pas
perdre de temps. L’âge idéal pour venir en séminaire se situe en général autour de
dix-huit ans avant d’entreprendre des études qui peuvent s’avérer longues, ou de
commencer un travail pour une durée indéterminée…
Vous qui êtes une jeune fille intelligente et pleine d’ambition, en quête de spiritualité
et de vérité, prenez votre courage à deux mains et partez en séminaire découvrir
une vie de Torah qui seule vous donnera accès au bonheur. Ne passez pas à côté
de l’essentiel, sachez prendre la bonne décision au bon moment et choisissez un
séminaire de valeur; vous ne le regretterez pas et vous vous construirez un avenir
de qualité avec une vie authentiquement juive digne de Sarah iménou…

Contacts de Séminaires francophones en Israel
• Séminaire Beth Aleph – Tél.: +972.58.320.12.99 / +972.73.732.19.30
• Beth Ra’hel, du Rav Yehouda Shwob – +972-2-6417176 ou +972-54-8462833
• Séminaire Rav Haccoun – +972.52 766 14 01
• Beit Nitsria, du Rav & Rabbanite Benhamou – +972-53-234-6424 /+972.2.586.41.45 / chbenhamo@gmail.com
• Midracha La Source – Tél: +972.2.538.37.28 / midrachalasource@hotmail.fr
Rav Emmanuel BOUKOBZA

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